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15.18 End-of-Chapter Material


Chapter Summary

To ensure that you recognize the product in this chapter, you have to review the meanings of the following bold terms in the review and ask yourself just how they relate to the object in the chapter.

You are watching: 1-octanol and acetic acid

A carboxylic acid (RCOOH) has the functional group COOH, dubbed the carboxyl group, which has an OH group attached come a carbonyl carbon atom. One ester (RCOOR′) has an OR′ team attached come a carbonyl carbon atom. An amine is acquired from ammonia (NH3), with one, two, or all 3 of the hydrogen atom of NH3 changed by one alkyl (or one aryl) group. The amide functional group has a carbonyl group joined come a nitrogen atom from NH3 or one amine.

There are numerous familiar carboxylic acids. The R team may be a hydrogen atom (as in formic acid, HCOOH), an alkyl group (as in acetic acid, CH2COOH), or one aryl group (as in benzoic acid, C6H5COOH). The ar of substituents along the carbon chain is indicated by a Greek letter (for common names) or a number (for names from the worldwide Union of Pure and also Applied Chemistry).

A carboxylic mountain is developed by the oxidation of one aldehyde through the same variety of carbon atoms. Because aldehydes are created from major alcohols, these alcohols are additionally a starting material because that carboxylic acids.

Carboxylic acids have actually strong, frequently disagreeable, odors. They are extremely polar molecules and also readily communicate in hydrogen bonding, so they have fairly high cook points.

Carboxylic acids space weak acids. They react v bases to form salts and also with carbonates and also bicarbonates to type carbon dioxide gas and also the salt the the acid.

Esters room pleasant-smelling link that are responsible for the perfume of flowers and also fruits. They have lower boiling points than equivalent carboxylic acids because, also though ester molecule are somewhat polar, they cannot communicate in hydrogen bonding. However, v water, esters have the right to engage in hydrogen bonding; consequently, the low molar massive esters room soluble in water. Esters have the right to be synthesized by esterification, in i m sorry a carboxylic acid and also an alcohol are merged under acidic conditions. Esters space neutral compounds the undergo hydrolysis, a reaction v water. Under acidic conditions, hydrolysis is basically the turning back of esterification. When carried out under an easy conditions, the process is dubbed saponification.

Inorganic acids additionally react through alcohols to form esters. Few of the most essential esters in biochemistry room those developed from phosphoric acid.

Amines are nitrogen-containing organic molecules acquired from ammonia (NH3). A primary (1°) amine (RNH2) has one organic team bonded come the nitrogen atom, a secondary (2°) amine (R2NH) has two organic teams bonded to the nitrogen atom, and a tertiary (3°) amine (R3N) has three organic teams bonded come the nitrogen atom. Amines are simple compounds that reaction with strong acids to create ammonium (NH4+) salts. A cyclic link in i m sorry the ring has one or an ext noncarbon atoms is dubbed a heterocyclic compound. Over there are numerous heterocyclic amines, including many physiologically crucial ones. Alkaloids are heterocyclic amines uncovered in countless plants. Caffeine, nicotine, and also cocaine are acquainted alkaloids.

Organic link containing a carbonyl team bonded come a nitrogen atom room amides, and also the carbon-to-nitrogen shortcut is one amide link (or a peptide linkage). Many amides are colorless and odorless, and the lighter ones space soluble in water. Because they room polar molecules, amides have actually comparatively high boil points and also melting points. Amides are synthesized native carboxylic acids and NH3 or amines. Amides room neutral compounds. They resist hydrolysis in water, yet acids, bases, and enzymes catalyze the reaction.


Of the family members of necessary compounds debated in this chapter, i beg your pardon are recognized for their commonly unpleasant odors? i beg your pardon for their characteristically pleasant aromas?


Like alcohols, phenols form esters through carboxylic acids. The hydrocarbon team from phenol is dubbed phenyl. Attract the structure of phenyl acetate.


Describe the hydrogen bonding in carboxylic acids, both acid-acid and also acid-water. How does this affect their physical properties?


Dicarboxylic acids have actually two carboxyl groups and are called with the ending -dioic acid. Offer the equation for the reaction the 1,5-pentanedioic acid (HOOCCH2CH2CH2COOH; usual name, glutaric acid) through each that the following:

1 mol the NaOH 2 mol that NaOH

Without consulting tables, species the adhering to compounds in order of increasing boiling point: butyl alcohol, methyl acetate, pentane, and propionic acid.

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From i m sorry alcohol might each acid be prepared via oxidation through acidic dichromate?

CH3CH2COOH HCOOH HOOCH2COOH (CH3)2CHCH2COOH

The distinctive aroma and flavor that oranges space due in component to octyl acetate, an ester created from 1-octanol (octyl alcohol) and also acetic acid. Compose the condensed structure formula because that octyl acetate.