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You are watching: A mononuclear leukocyte that is a phagocyte


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Key People:Karl Albert Ludwig Aschoff...(Show more)Related Topics:immune systembone marrowmacrophagereticular cell...(Show more)

mononuclear phagocyte system, likewise called macrophage system or reticuloendothelial system, course of cell that occur in widely separated components of the person body and also that have actually in typical the residential or commercial property of phagocytosis, through which the cell engulf and also destroy bacteria, viruses, and also other foreign substances and ingest worn-out or abnormal human body cells. German pathologist karl Albert Ludwig Aschoff presented the term reticuloendothelial system in 1924, collating the cells based upon their phagocytic activity. The later on reclassification the phagocytic mononuclear cells, however, brought about the exclusion of endothelial cells and fibroblasts indigenous the system; hence, Aschoff’s ax was changed in the latter component of the 20th century through the name mononuclear phagocyte system.

Mononuclear phagocytic cells are acquired from precursor cells in the bone marrow. These precursors build into monocytes and also dendritic cells, phagocytic cells that space released right into the bloodstream. Some monocytes and dendritic cells remain in the basic blood circulation, but most the them get in body tissues. In tissues, monocytes construct into much larger phagocytic cells well-known as macrophages. The great majority the macrophages remain as stationary cell within tissue, where they filter out and also destroy foreign particles. Few of them rest away, however, and also wander through the circulation and within the intercellular spaces.

Cells of the mononuclear phagocyte mechanism differ in appearance and also name due to the fact that of their various locations. For example, dendritic cell are found in plenty of tissues, consisting of the lungs, the skin, and the gastrointestinal tract, and also throughout the lymphatic system. Histiocytes are discovered in countless subcutaneous tissues. Kupffer cells line the sinusoids of the liver. Microglia happen in worried tissue, and alveolar macrophages are found in the waiting spaces the the lungs.

Each phagocytic cell deserve to engulf and also destroy microorganisms, cells, and even tiny pieces of foreign objects, such as bits that splinters and also suture materials. Several mobile macrophages have the right to surround larger international objects and also coalesce right into a single phagocytic cell. Thus, by their phagocytosis of international substances, macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cell form crucial first line of defense against harmful particles that have reached the body’s interior.


Cells that the mononuclear phagocyte system likewise participate in immune reactions, in i beg your pardon a complicated set of events is targeted at a specific foreign substance. With phagocytosis, macrophages expose antigens (surface molecules) on international substances. Antigens wake up immune reactions that are directed through white blood cells known as lymphocytes. B lymphocytes (or B cells) synthesize and also secrete antibodies through the help of T lymphocytes (or T cells; T cell are likewise capable of other immunological reaction not including antibody production). The production of antibodies, in turn, significantly stimulates the phagocytic activity of the cell of the mononuclear phagocyte system.

The mononuclear phagocyte system likewise plays critical role in the devastation of worn-out red blood cells and the recycling of iron. Specialized macrophages, mainly those residing in the bone marrow, liver, and also spleen, failure old red blood cells and metabolize the hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying colors of red blood cells), thereby freeing the iron link heme for the manufacturing of brand-new red blood cells.

Disorders associated with the mononuclear phagocyte system include anemia caused by the excessive devastation of red blood cells. There are additionally malignant tumours concerned mononuclear phagocytes that can be either localized or prevalent throughout the body; the extreme proliferation that histiocytes, for example, wake up in malignant histiocytosis and also monocytic leukemia. Niemann-Pick an illness and Gaucher disease are hereditary disorders identified by abnormal assets of lipid metabolism within cell of the mononuclear phagocyte system.

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This post was most recently revised and updated through Kara Rogers, senior Editor.