Das Kapital was interpreted into Russian in 1872. Marx retained up much more or much less steady relations with the Russian socialists and took an attention in the economic and social problems of the tsarist empire. The human being who originally introduced Marxism into Russia to be Georgy Plekhanov, however the human who adjusted Marxism to Russian problems was Lenin.

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Lenin

Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov, or Lenin, to be born in 1870 in ~ Simbirsk (now Ulyanovsk). He gotten in the college of Kazan to examine law yet was expelled the very same year because that participating in student agitation. In 1893 he settled in St. Petersburg and became proactively involved through the revolutionary workers. V his pamphlet Chto delat? (1902; What Is to be Done?), he stated the theoretical principles and organization of a Marxist party as he assumed it need to be constituted. The took part in the second Congress of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party, i beg your pardon was held in Brussels and London (1903), and induced the bulk of the congress members to adopt his views. Two factions developed at the Congress: the Bolshevik (from the Russian word because that “larger”) through Lenin as the leader and also the Menshevik (from the Russian word for “smaller”) through L. Martov at the head. The former wanted a limited party that militants and advocated the dictatorship that the proletariat. The latter wanted a wide-open proletarian party, participation with the liberals, and also a democratic constitution for Russia. In his pamphlet Shag vperyod, dva shaga nazad (1904; One action Forward, Two steps Back), Lenin contrasted the organizational principles of the Bolsheviks to those of the Mensheviks. After the fail of the Russian revolution of 1905, he drew positive lessons because that the future in Dve taktiki Sotsial-Demokraty v demokraticheskoy revolyutsi (1905; Two methods of social Democracy in the democratic Revolution. He fiercely assaulted the affect of Kantian ideology on German and also Russian Marxism in Materializm i empiriokrititsizm (1908; Materialism and Empirio-criticism (1908). In 1912 in ~ the Prague Conference the Bolsheviks made up themselves as an elevation party. During world War ns Lenin resided in Switzerland, whereby he studied Hegel’s Science the Logic and also the breakthrough of capitalism and also carried on disputes with Marxists prefer Luxemburg on the meaning of the war and the best of countries to self-determination. In 1915 at Zimmerwald, and in 1916 in ~ Kiental, he arranged two international socialist conferences to fight against the war. Immediately after the February 1917 change he returned to Russia, and in October the Bolshevik coup brought him come power.


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Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin, 1918.
Tass/Sovfoto

The case of Russia and the Russian revolutionary motion at the finish of the 19th century and the start of the 20th led Lenin come diverge, in the food of his breakthrough and his analyses, native the location both that “orthodox Marxism” and also of “revisionism.” the rediscovered the initial thought the Marx by a cautious study that his works, in specific Das Kapital and also The holy Family. He witnessed Marxism as a handy affair and tried to go beyond the welcomed formulas to setup political action that would involved grips through the surrounding world.

As early as 1894, in his populist examine Chto Takoye “Druzya Naroda,” kak oni voyuyut protiv Sotsial-Demokratov? (What the “Friends the the People” Are, and also How They hit the Social-Democrats), Lenin took up Marx’s distinction between “material society relations” and also “ideological society relations.” In Lenin’s eyes the prominence of Das Kapital was that “while explaining the structure and also the advancement of the social formation seen exclusively in terms of its connections of production, (Marx) has nevertheless all over and always analyzed the superstructure which coincides to these relations of production.” In Razvitiye kapitalizma v Rossi (1897–99; The advancement of Capitalism in Russia) Lenin sought to apply Marx’s evaluation by mirroring the growing role of capital, in details commercial capital, in the exploitation of the employees in the factories and also the large expropriation that the peasants. It to be thus possible to apply to Russia the models occurred by Marx for western Europe. In ~ the very same time Lenin walk not lose sight the the prestige of the peasant in Russian society. Back a disciple of Marx, that did not think that he had only come repeat Marx’s conclusions. That wrote:

We execute not think about the concept of Marx to it is in a complete, immutable whole. Us think ~ above the contrary the this theory has only to adjust the cornerstone the the science, a scientific research which socialists should further develop in every directions if they do not desire to let us be overtaken by life. We think that, for the Russian socialists, an independent elaboration the the concept is particularly necessary.

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Lenin laid good stress ~ above the dialectical method. In his early writings he identified the dialectic as “nothing more nor much less than the method of sociology, which sees culture as a life organism, in perpetual breakthrough (and no as other mechanically assembled and thus enabling all kinds of arbitrary combinations of the assorted social elements) . . . ” (Friends of the People). After having actually studied Hegel toward the finish of 1914, he take it a an ext activist view. Dialectic is not only evolution; it is praxis, top from activity to reflection and also from reflection to action.