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Roselina Angel, Ph.D. Purina Mills, Inc.P.O. Box 66812 St. Louis, MO 63166ABSTRACTVitamin and also mineral level were established in the egg of ostriches and also compared with poultry conventional values as an indicator point. Deficiencies or excesses of vitamins and/or mineral in the laying hen, and thus in the egg, can lead to infertility, bad hatchability and early chick wellness problems. Specifics are described. Also, rewildtv.com on vitamin and mineral deficiencies is given.INTRODUCTIONKnowledge the the nutrient content in the egg have the right to be a great tool in examining nutritional difficulties in breeder bird diets. Before looking in ~ the nutrient contents in the egg, an overview of the environment, management and health the the reproducing bird have to be undertaken. If the rewildtv.com obtained suggests that the problems may be nutritional, or that there is a possibility that nutrition might be implicated, climate egg nutritional analysis can it is in a good tool.Extensive research has been done in poultry top top nutrient contents of the egg, and also on the influence of diet nutrient level on egg nutrient level (Naber, 1979; Robel, 1993; Stadelman and also Pratt, 1989; Squires and also Naber, 1993). The influence of the nutritional content of the laying hen's diet ~ above the nutritional content of the egg varies, relying on the nutrient. Because that example, riboflavin and biotin content in the egg space markedly influenced by dietary transforms (Squires and also Naber, 1993, Frigg et al., 1984), yet choline is not (Stadelman and also Pratt, 1989). When diet has vital effect ~ above egg nutrient content, management, genetics and also environment additionally play a role.Limited rewildtv.com is obtainable on ostrich egg ingredient (Angel, 1993: Angel, 1994). The data gift in the very first portion that the record is supposed to serve as a pointer for average nutrient worths in the egg of hens fed through feeds with well-known nutrient content, and also to hens fed 8 various diets representative of feeds in the joined States.MATERIALS and METHODSOstrich egg were derived from ranches in Texas, Arkansas, California and Indiana. Eggs were obtained from hens v a known feed history. At the very least 8 different varieties of feed from various feed suppliers were fed to the hen sampled. The worths presented in Table 1 represent average values for the variety of eggs sampled to date from hen being fed various diets. Sampling has been done of egg from details hens where the feeding was also analyzed (Table 2). This offers some indication of just how well feeding nutrients room being integrated into the egg.Eggs were identified to it is in infertile in ~ 10 come 14 days right into incubation. In ~ this time, the egg were sent out to a central location and immediately processed because that analysis.
rewildtv.comrmation on weight of egg at the moment it was laid, at the begin of incubation, and also at the time it was eliminated from the incubator to be recorded. This rewildtv.comrmation was used to correct for moisture losses ~ the egg was laid. The eggs were processed as follows: as soon as the eggs to be received, the egg content was removed and also frozen (-20 C) till analyzed. For analysis, the egg content was thoroughly mixed, a sample taken because that dry matter determination and also a huge (200 ml) aliquot was taken and also freeze dried. The freeze-dried material was used for protein, fat, vitamin and mineral analyses. Every analyses were carried out making use of approved combination of main Chemists (1980) procedures.RESULTS and also DISCUSSIONThe results obtained for egg nutrient content from eggs laid by hen being fed various diets space presented in Table 1. rewildtv.comrmation derived from the literature on chicken values that have actually been uncovered to maximize egg production, hatchability, and livability is included in the table to serve as a guideline.Moisture, protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin A, folic acid, magnesium, zinc, iodine, and also iron contents of the ostrich eggs sampled were comparable to values released for chicken egg content. Of concern, were the low levels found for vitamin E, pantothenic acid, and manganese in ostrich eggs. Selenium was uncovered to be high in ostrich eggs versus poultry published values. Copper level in ostrich eggs tends to be low and exhibits high variability. Copper absorb is affected by the visibility of excess levels of other microminerals (iron, molybdenum, zinc) and also macrominerals (calcium).Table 1 Nutrient content of Ostrich and Chicken eggs (egg content only)
NutrientOstrich (n=79) Mean (std. dev.)Chicken1
Moisture, %75.32 (1.01)74.7
(Dry issue Basis)
Protein, %47.0 (1.2)47.4
Fat, %44.3 (1.8)45.4
Calcium, %.243 (.01).233
Phosphorus, %.795 (.07).810
Vitamin A, IU/g16.29 (8.1)20.5
Vitamin E, IU/kg15.31 (10.5)39.95
Folic Acid, ppm1.51 (.4)1.18
Pantothenic Acid, ppm28.45 (6.955.3
Riboflavin, ppm9.12 (1.6)12.6
Thiamin, ppm5.02 (1.1)3.55
Magnesium, ppm540.0 (55)490.0
Manganese, ppm8.9 (2.9)15.8
Selenium, ppm1.53 (.7).60
Zinc, ppm51.6 (6.5)59.2

Iodine, ppm3.3 (.51)2.8
Iron, ppm110.9 (7.6)90.9
Copper, ppm1.5 (1.1)2.45
1 From: Cotterill et al., 1977, Latshaw and also Osman, 1975.
2 values corrected because that moisture loss during incubation(ostrich eggs were obtained after 14 days of incubation).

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Vitamin E has essential functions in reproduction. Vitamin E in the egg contents of the egg sampled was found to it is in low compared to regular values in chickens. Preliminary outcomes from egg sampled indigenous hens wherein dietary vitamin E content was well-known (Table 2) display that levels of 189 IU/kg the vitamin E in the diet result in egg level of39.18 IU/kg the egg contents on a dry issue basis. Further work is required to recognize the level of vitamin E in the diet necessary to provide higher levels in the egg content. rewildtv.com is additionally needed as to the interaction of vitamin E through the absorption of various other fat dissolve vitamins prefer vitamins A and K. It will likewise be vital to recognize whether there space some forms (isomers) the vitamin E the are far better absorbed than others. Ultimately, research study is needed that records the relationship among dietary vitamin E levels, egg level, and also egg production, hatchability, and livability in ostriches.While doing the egg sampling work, what appears to it is in a selenium toxicity problem (values indigenous eggs acquired from hens being supplemented with high level of selenium to be not supplied to acquire the median values) to be observed. Levels together high together 6.7 ppm were discovered in the egg content (dry matter) of eggs from laying hen consuming mixed diets through high selenium. Many of the selenium in this diet come from a powdered vitamin E-selenium complement being sprinkled on a finish pelleted diet. The is crucial to note that ostrich egg levels are greater than poultry levels, and also that supplementation through selenium is no advised unless especially indicated. Sprinkling supplements on finish diets existing several problems. The amount being sprinkled is unknown, given the potential variability in between manually sprinkled amounts that room not pre-measured. Also, sprinkling a powdered kind of a complement leads to settling of the supplements come the bottom of the feeding trough. This presents a problem, offered that ostriches are recognized to have a choice for the feed they know. Thus, if they are accustomed to eat pellets, castle will have tendency not to consume the fines. Through a powdered supplement, this would typical a low consumption or one uneven usage of the supplement. Overall, when a complement is used, wherein the consumption of the supplement have the right to vary between birds and the amount readily available can likewise vary, that is complicated to recognize actual usage levels.Manganese appears to be short in ostrich eggs. In preliminary studies, die t values of 210 ppm led to levels that 11.9 ppm in the egg content dry matter. High calcium and phosphorus intakes aggravate the manganese deficiency by impairing manganese absorption. Thus, that is vital to look in ~ the whole diet nutrient contents (together with any kind of supplements the producer is using) to advice deficiencies.When discussing mineral nutrition as it relates come ostriches, it is essential to think about water and soil mineral levels. A water and also soil evaluation that offers macro- and also micromineral level is crucial tool once looking in ~ nutrient intake. That is not unusual for healthy and balanced birds to consume several of the substrate they space on, and during stressful periods, they deserve to consume high amounts of this substrate. The substrate for reproduction birds tends to be dust (soil), and also in some cases, sand is included to the pen as a
place because that nesting. The soil and sand must be analyzed. Cases of copper deficiencies have been documented. In these cases, one interfering mineral has actually been found in the soil and also forage. High levels of soil molybdenum, stole and/or zinc have actually been observed connected with the copper deficiency cases. These 3 minerals interfere v the absorb or use of copper, and also lead to deficiency regardless of adequate level of copper in the diet.Egg nutrient contents for egg from hens where the nutrient in the diet to be analyzed room presented in Table 2. These room preliminary values and should be provided with caution. It is necessary to keep in mind that these values were not derived from dose an answer experiments yet from hen being fed one diet. Nutrient interaction can and do occur often, and they will affect the method nutrients are took in and utilized. Also, the hens from which eggs were acquired were no all ~ above the same location and thus, water and soil mineral content have the right to have an affect on mineral level in the egg.In the evaluation done through Naber (1979) top top the result of nutrient on egg composition, he states that some nutrients in the egg space not influenced by diet. The adhering to nutrients in the egg content space minimally changed by transforms in the diet: water, protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, amino acids, magnesium (Naber, 1979). Other nutrients in the egg content have been uncovered (Naber, 1979) come be an extremely responsive to dietary alters (vitamins A, D, E, K, and also B12, thiamin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, folic acid, biotin, linoleic acid, manganese, iodine).Table 2 Nutrient content of Ostrich Egg Content and also of Diet
NutrientOstrich (n=21)Diet
Moisture, %75.5 (0.5)11.7 (.9)
(Dry issue Basis)
Calcium, %.238 (.04)2.4 (.17)
Phosphorus, %.793 (.07)1.1 (.08)
Vitamin A, IU/g18.51 (8.1)12.98 (.31)
Vitamin E, IU/kg39.18 (11.4)199 (14.7)
Folic Acid, ppm1.01 (.21)4.4 (.3)
Pantothenic Acid, ppm42.9 (6.9)26.2 (1.8)
Riboflavin, ppm11.3 (1.1)12.1 (0.6)
Manganese, ppm11.9 (2.9)215 (17)
Selenium, ppm1.42 (.7)46 (.02)
Copper, ppm3.1 (.9)25.7 (1.7)
Table 3 summarizes the potential results of diet deficiencies on embryos, reproduction and very young chicks as elucidated in poultry, with restricted rewildtv.comrmation included particular to ostriches. These are guidelines to keep in mind when looking at reproductive problems (in the males and also females), embryonic mortalities, and at an extremely early chick mortalities. The is necessary to store in mind that reproductive, hatching and also early chick problems can be related to other factors. All components must be thought about when looking for potential causes, determinants such as: incubation and also hatching (temperature, humidity, weight loss, egg turning, sterility the incubation environment, air movement in incubator, and also incubation time), egg choose up routine, egg handling and also storage before incubation, health and wellness of reproductive pair (to avoid vertically sent
diseases), all at once sanitation the eggs and also sanitation in the incubator and also hatcher (and the rooms in i beg your pardon they are located), and also diet.
Table 3 results on the Embryo, Egg, Hen and Chick that Deficiencies that Vitamins and also Minerals(From Poultry NRC, 1984, 1994, and Scott et al, 1982)(Signs that have actually been observed and also can be traced earlier to a deficiency the the certain vitamin in ostriches are complied with by *)
VitaminEffect
Vitamin A-Early mortality
-Failure to develop a circulatory system
-Abnormalities the the kidneys, eyes, and skeleton
-Marked reduction in egg production
-Increased time between clutches
-Low hatchability
-Increase in malposition embryos
Vitamin D-Low hatchability
-Late embryonic mortality
-Shortened upper mandible in embryo
-Increased manufacturing of slim shells or shell-less eggs
-Low egg production
-Increased incidence the malposition embryos
Vitamin E-Early embryonic mortality - circulatory fail *
-Late mortality
-hemorrhages and also disturbances in circulatory system
-High mortality that chicks shortly after flower *
-Low hatchability
-Prolonged deficiency in males causes testicular degeneration
Thiamin (B1)-Atrophy of genital organs, an ext pronounced in the testes than in the ovaries
-High embryonic mortality throughout hatching v no certain signs
-Embryos the hatch will develop polyneuritis
Riboflavin (B2)-High mortality v peaks early, middle and late during incubation
-Embryos exhibition dwarfing, changed limb and mandible development, edema, defect in the down development (clubbed down)*
-Low hatchability
-Incidence of boost size and fat contents in liver in the hen

Niacin-Embryos readily synthesize sufficient niacin from tryptophan if pyridoxine is adequate
Pyridoxine (B6)-Decrease egg production
-Decrease hatchability
-No specific effects ~ above embryos
Folic Acid-Late embryonic mortality (after inside pipping
-Bending that the tibiotarsus
-Defects the the mandible, deformed beaks *
-Syndactyly
-Reduced hatchability
-Twisted hocks
Pantothenic Acid-Very late mortality there is no characteristic signs
-Low hatchability
-Very weak chicken at hatch
-No result on egg production
-Late embryonic mortality
MineralEffect
Manganese-Shortened bones
-Chondrodystrophy
-Skull deformities, parrot beak *
-Low egg production
-Reduced egg shell strength
-Increased incidence of thin shelled and shell less eggs*
Zinc-Embryos exhibit skeletal deformities including the head, limbs and also vertebrae faulty spine and limb development, caudal part of stems absent, little eyes, limbs missing
-Chicks that hatch are weak, have challenge standing, have actually an accelerated respiratory rate and show labored breathing
-Decreased egg production
Iodine-Enlarged thyroid gland
-Incomplete closure of navel *
-Prolonged incubation time
-Decreased hatchability
-Decrease egg production
Selenium Deficiency-Low egg production
-Very short hatchability

Selenium Excess-Reduced egg production*
-Reduced hatchability*
-Embryonic abnormalities*
REFERENCESAssociation of official Analytical Chemists. Official techniques of evaluation of the association of main Analytical Chemists. 13th ed. Combination of official Analytical Chemists, Washington, D.C.Angel R. Research update: Age changes in digestibility of nutrients in ostriches and also nutrient profiles of ostrich and emu egg as indications of nutritional standing of the hen and chick. Proc. Assoc. Avian Vet. Aug 31 come Sep 4, pp 275-281, Nashville, TN, 1993.Angel R. Diet effect on egg nutrient in a high creating ostrich. Proc. Assoc. Avian Vet. Sep 28-30, pp. 121-126, Reno, NV, 1994.Cotterill OJ, Marion WN, Naber EC: A nutrient re-evaluation of shell eggs. Poultry Sci 56:1927-1934, 1977.Frigg M, Broz J, Streiff F. Research studies on biotin deposition in hens' eggs. Proc XVII World's Poultry Congress, Aug 8-12, Helsinki, Finland, 1984.Latshaw JD, Osman M: circulation of selenium in egg white and also yolk ~ feeding natural and synthetic selenium compounds. Poultry Sci 54:1244-1252, 1975.Naber EC. The effect of nutrition ~ above the composition of the egg. Poultry Sci 58:518-528, 1979.National study Council, Nutritional demands of domestic animals. Nutrient needs of poultry. 8th revised edition. National Academy that Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1984.Robel EJ. Evaluation of egg injection of folic acid and effect the supplemental folic acid on hatchability and also poultry weight. Poultry Sci. 72:546-553, 1993.Scott ML, Nesheim MC, Young RJ: Nutrition that the chicken. Third Edition. Cornell University, Ithaca, new York, 1982.Squires MW, Naber EC. Vitamin file of eggs as indicators of nutritional standing in the laying hen: Riboflavin study. Poultry Sci. 72:483-494, 1993.Stadelman WJ, Pratt DE. Components influencing the ingredient of the hen's egg. World's Poultry Sci. 45:247-266, 1989.
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