(Franz) Joseph Haydn (31 march 1732–31 may 1809) to be a prominent and prolific Austrian composer of the classical period. He was critical in the development of room music such as the piano trio and his contributions to musical form have earned the the epithets “Father that the Symphony” and also “Father of the wire Quartet.”
Haydn spent much of his career together a court musician for the wealthy Esterházy family at your remote estate. Till the later part of his life, this isolated the from other composers and also trends in music so the he was, as he put it, “forced to end up being original.” At the moment of his death, age 77, he was among the most commemorated composers in Europe.
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Joseph Haydn was the brother of Michael Haydn—himself a extremely regarded composer—and Johann Evangelist Haydn, a tenor. That was additionally a girlfriend of Mozart and a teacher the Beethoven.
Joseph Haydn was born in Rohrau, Austria, a village that at that time was standing on the border v Hungary. His father was Mathias Haydn, a wheelwright who also served together “Marktrichter”—an office akin to village mayor. Haydn’s mom Maria, née Koller, had actually previously functioned as a cook in the royal residence of counting Harrach, the presiding aristocrat that Rohrau. No parent might read music; however, Mathias was an enthusiastic folk musician, who during the journeyman period of his career had taught himself to pat the harp. According to Haydn’s later reminiscences, his childhood family members was exceptionally musical, and also frequently sang together and also with their neighbors.
Haydn’s parents had noticed that their boy was musically gifted and knew the in Rohrau he would have actually no opportunity to attain serious music training. The was thus that they welcomed a proposal native their loved one Johann Matthias Frankh, the schoolmaster and also choirmaster in Hainburg, the Haydn it is in apprenticed come Frankh in his home to train together a musician. Haydn because of this went off with Frankh come Hainburg 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) away and also never again lived with his parents. That was around six year old.
Life in the Frankh family members was not basic for Haydn, who later on remembered being generally hungry and humiliated by the filthy state that his clothing. He began his music training there, and could shortly play both harpsichord and violin. The civilization of Hainburg heard him song trebleparts in the church choir.
There is reason to think the Haydn’s to sing impressed those that heard him, because in 1739 he was brought to the attention of Georg von Reutter, the manager of music in St. Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna, who occurred to it is in visiting Hainburg and also was spring for new choirboys. Haydn efficiently auditioned with Reutter, and also after number of months of further training relocated to Vienna (1740), whereby he operated for the next nine years together a chorister.
The Morzin palace in Dolní Lukavice, Czech Republic.
With the rise in his reputation, Haydn eventually acquired aristocratic patronage, critical for the job of a composer in his day. Countess Thun, having seen among Haydn’s compositions, summoned him and engaged him as her singing and also keyboard teacher. In 1756, Baron Carl Josef Fürnberg employed Haydn at his nation estate, Weinzierl, where the composer created his first string quartets. Fürnberg later recommended Haydn to counting Morzin, who, in 1757, became his very first full-time employer.
The Years together Kapellmeister
View that Eszterháza
As a “house officer” in the Esterházy establishment, Haydn wore livery and followed the family members as lock moved among their various palaces, most importantly the family’s ancestral seat Schloss Esterházy in Eisenstadt and afterwards Esterháza, a grand brand-new palace built in landscape Hungary in the 1760s. Haydn had actually a huge selection of responsibilities, including composition, running the orchestra, play chamber music for and with his patrons, and eventually the mounting the operatic productions. Regardless of this backbreaking workload, the project was in creative terms a superb opportunity for Haydn. The Esterházy princes (Paul Anton, climate from 1762–1790 Nikolaus I) to be musical connoisseurs who appreciated his work and gave that daily accessibility to his own small orchestra. During the almost thirty years the Haydn worked at the Esterházy court, he developed a overwhelming of compositions, and also his music style ongoing to develop.
Prince Nikolaus Esterházy, Haydn’s most essential patron.
1779 was a watershed year because that Haydn, together his contract to be renegotiated: whereas formerly all his compositions were the property of the Esterházy family, he now was allowed to write for others and also sell his work-related to publishers. Haydn soon shifted his emphasis in ingredient to reflect this (fewer operas, and more quartets and also symphonies) and he negotiated with multiple publishers, both Austrian and foreign. That Haydn’s new employment contract Jones writes,
This single file acted together a catalyst in the following stage in Haydn’s career, the achievement of international popularity. By 1790 Haydn remained in the paradoxical, if not bizarre, place of being Europe’s top composer, yet someone who invested his time together a duty-bound Kapellmeister in a remote palace in the Hungarian countryside.
The new publication project resulted in the ingredient of a great number of new string quartets (the six-quartet to adjust of Op. 33, 50, 54/55, and 64). Haydn likewise composed in solution to rose from abroad: the Paris symphonies (1785–1786) and also the initial orchestral variation of The seven Last indigenous of Christ(1786), a commission native Cadiz, Spain.
The remoteness that Esterháza, which to be farther native Vienna 보다 Eisenstadt, led Haydn slowly to feel an ext isolated and also lonely. He longed come visit Vienna since of his friendships there. Of these, a specifically important one was through Maria Anna von Genzinger (1754–93), the wife of Prince Nikolaus’s an individual physician in Vienna, who started a close, platonic, relationship with the composer in 1789. Haydn composed to Mrs. Genzinger often, express his loneliness at Esterháza and his pleasure for the couple of occasions on which he had the ability to visit her in Vienna; later on on, Haydn composed to her generally from London. Her premature fatality in 1793 was a blow to Haydn, and his F young variations for piano, Hob. XVII:6, may have been written in solution to her death.
Another friend in Vienna was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, whom Haydn had actually met sometime around 1784. Follow to later on testimony through Michael Kelly and also others, the two composers occasionally played in string quartets together. Haydn was hugely impressed v Mozart’s work and also praised it unstintingly to others. Mozart evidently returned the esteem, as watched in his dedication of a collection of six quartets, now called the “Haydn” quartets, to his friend. For more details check out Haydn and Mozart.
The London Journeys
In 1790, Prince Nikolaus died and also was flourished as prince by his boy Anton. Following a trend of the time, Anton sought come economize by dismissing many of the court musicians. Haydn retained a nominal appointment with Anton, at a diminished salary that 400 florins, and also a 1000-florin pension native Nikolaus. Since Anton had tiny need the Haydn’s services, he to be willing to let that travel, and also the composer embraced a profitable offer native Johann Peter Salomon, a German violinist and also impresario, come visit England and conduct new symphonies with a large orchestra.
The choice was a cautious one because Haydn was already a really popular composer there. Since the fatality of Johann Christian Bach in 1782, Haydn’s music had overcame the concert scene in London; “hardly a concert did not feature a occupational by him” (Jones). Haydn’s work was widely dispersed by publishers in London, consisting of Forster (who had actually their own contract through Haydn) and Longman & Broderip (who served as agent in England because that Haydn’s Vienna publisher Artaria). Efforts to carry Haydn to London had been undertaken because 1782, despite Haydn’s loyalty to Prince Nikolaus had actually prevented him from accepting.
After fond farewells native Mozart and other friends, Haydn departed Vienna through Salomon on 15 December 1790, arriving in Calais in time to cross the English Channel on new Year’s job of 1791. It to be the very first time that the 58-year-old composer had seen the ocean. Showing up in London, Haydn continued to be with Salomon in good Pulteney Street, working in a obtained studio at the Broadwood piano firm nearby.
It was the start of a really auspicious duration for Haydn; both the 1791–1792 journey, in addition to a repeat visit in 1794–1795, were significantly successful. Audience flocked to Haydn’s concerts; that augmented his fame and also made huge profits, thus becoming financially secure. Charles Burney reviewed the an initial concert thus: “Haydn self presided in ~ the piano-forte; and the sight of the renowned composer therefore electrified the audience, regarding excite an attention and also a pleasure remarkable to any that had ever before been resulted in by important music in England.” Haydn made many brand-new friends and, for a time, was associated in a romantic relationship with Rebecca Schroeter.
Musically, Haydn’s visits to England created some that his best-known work, including the Surprise, Military, Drumroll, and London symphonies; the rider quartet; and also the “Gypsy Rondo” piano trio.
Listen: Haydn Symphonies
Listen come the “London” symphony, No. 104, together played by the Saint Paul room Orchestra.
Listen come the “Military” symphony, No. 100, together played by the Saint Paul chamber Orchestra.
The an excellent success the the all at once enterprise walk not typical that the journeys were cost-free of trouble. Notably, his very an initial project, the commissioned opera L’anima del filosofo to be duly written throughout the early on stages of the trip, however the opera’s impresario man Gallini to be unable to attain a license to allow opera performances in the theatre he directed, the King’s Theatre. Haydn was well paid for the opera (300 pounds) however much time was wasted. Thus only two new symphonies, no. 95 and also no. 96 “Miracle“, might be premiered in the 12 concert of Salomon’s spring concert series.
The end of Salomon’s series in June gave Haydn a rare duration of relative leisure. The spent several of the time in the country (Hertingfordbury), but additionally had time come travel, notably to Oxford, whereby he was awarded an honorary doctorate by the University. The symphony performed because that the occasion, no. 92 has because come to be recognized as the Oxford Symphony, although it been written in 1789.
While travel to London in 1790, Haydn had met the young Ludwig van Beethoven in his aboriginal city of Bonn. ~ above Haydn’s return, Beethoven came to Vienna and also during the moment up come the 2nd London visit to be Haydn’s pupil. For conversation of your relationship, view Beethoven and his contemporaries.
Years of Celebrity in Vienna
Haydn returned to Vienna in 1795. Prince Anton had actually died, and also his successor Nikolaus II proposed that the Esterházy musical facility be restored with Haydn serving again as Kapellmeister. Haydn took up the place on a part-time basis. He spent his summers with the Esterházys in Eisenstadt, and also over the course of numerous years wrote six masses for them.
Haydn’s signature ~ above a work-related of music: di me giuseppe Haydn (“by me Joseph Haydn”). He writes in Italian, a language he often used professionally.
James Webster to write of Haydn’s public personality thus: “Haydn’s windy life exemplified the enlightenment ideal the the honnête homme (honest man): the guy whose great character and also worldly success permit and justify each other. His modesty and also probity were all over acknowledged. These traits to be not just prerequisites come his success as Kapellmeister, entrepreneur and public figure, but also aided the favorable agree of his music.” Haydn was especially respected through the Esterházy court musicians whom he supervised, as he kept a cordial working atmosphere and also effectively stood for the musicians’ interests v their employer; view Papa Haydn and also the story of the “Farewell” Symphony. Haydn had actually a robust sense of humor, apparent in his love of useful jokes and often noticeable in his music, and also he had many friends. For lot of his life that benefited native a “happy and also naturally you re welcome temperament,” but in his later on life, there is evidence for periods of depression, notably in the correspondence v Mrs. Genzinger and also in Dies’s biography, based on visits made in Haydn’s old age.
Haydn was a devout Catholic who frequently turned come his rosary as soon as he had trouble composing, a exercise that the usually uncovered to be effective. He normally began the manuscript of each composition v “in nomine Domini” (“in the surname of the Lord”) and also ended with “Laus Deo” (“praise be to God”).
Haydn’s major character flaw to be greed as it related to his business dealings. Webster writes: “As regards money, Haydn to be so self-interested as to shock
Haydn was short in stature, probably as a result of having been underfed throughout many of his youth. The was not handsome, and also like plenty of in his day he to be a survivor that smallpox; his confront was pitted v the scars the this disease. His biographer dies wrote: “…he couldn’t understand just how it taken place that in his life he had actually been loved by plenty of a quite woman. ‘They couldn’t have actually been caused it by my beauty"”.
His nose, huge and aquiline, was disfigured by the polypus he suffered throughout much that his adult life, an agonizing and debilitating an illness that at time prevented the from writing music.
James Webster summarizes Haydn’s duty in the history of classical music together follows:
He excelled in every music genre… the is familiarly well-known as the ‘father that the symphony’ and could with better justice be thus regarded for the cable quartet; no various other composer approaches his combination of productivity, quality and historical prestige in these genres.
Structure and also Character that His Music
A main characteristic the Haydn’s music is the advancement of bigger structures out of an extremely short, basic musical motifs, often acquired from conventional accompanying figures. The music is regularly quite officially concentrated, and also the vital musical events of a movement have the right to unfold fairly quickly.
Haydn’s job-related was main to the development of what came to be called sonata form. His practice, however, differed in some means from that of Mozart and also Beethoven, his younger contemporaries who an in similar way excelled in this kind of composition. Haydn was an especially fond the the so-called “monothematic exposition”, in i beg your pardon the music that develops the dominant an essential is comparable or identical to the opening theme. Haydn additionally differs indigenous Mozart and Beethoven in his recapitulation sections, where he regularly rearranges the order of themes compared to the exposition and uses substantial thematic development.
Haydn’s formal inventiveness additionally led the to combine the fugue right into the classical style and to enrich the rondo form with more cohesive tonal reasonable (see sonata rondo form). Haydn was likewise the principal exponent of the dual variation form—variations on two alternate themes, i beg your pardon are regularly major- and also minor-mode execution of every other.
Perhaps an ext than any kind of other composer’s, Haydn’s music is known for that humor.The many famous instance is the sudden according to chord in the slow motion of his “Surprise” symphony; Haydn’s numerous other musical jokes include countless false end (e.g., in the quartets Op. 33 No. 2 and also Op. 50 No. 3), and the amazing rhythmic illusion inserted in the trio section of the 3rd movement the Op. 50 No. 1.
Much that the music was written to please and also delight a prince, and also its emotionally tone is correspondingly upbeat. This tone likewise reflects, perhaps, Haydn’s essentially healthy and well-balanced personality. Occasional minor-key works, regularly deadly severe in character, form striking exceptions to the basic rule. Haydn’s rapid movements have tendency to it is in rhythmically propulsive and also often impart a an excellent sense that energy, specifically in the finales. Some characteristic instances of Haydn’s “rollicking” finale kind are found in the “London” symphonyNo. 104, the wire quartet Op. 50 No. 1, and also the piano trio Hob XV: 27. Haydn’s early on slow activities are usually not too slow in tempo, relaxed, and also reflective. Later on, the emotional range of the slow motions increases, notably in the deeply felt slow activities of the quartets Op. 76 Nos. 3 and 5, the Symphonies No. 98 and also 102, and the piano trio Hob XV: 23. The minuets tend to have a solid downbeat and also a clearly popular character. Over time, Haydn turned some of his minuets right into “scherzi” i m sorry are lot faster, in ~ one beat come the bar.
Evolution the Haydn’s Style
In the so late 1760s and also early 1770s, Haydn gotten in a stylistic period known together “Sturm und Drang” (“storm and also stress”). This hatchet is taken indigenous a literary movement of around the exact same time, despite it appears that the musical breakthrough actually came before the literary one by a few years. The music language the this duration is comparable to what go before, yet it is deployed in work that is more intensely expressive, specifically in the works in young keys. James Webster defines the functions of this period as “longer, much more passionate, and more daring.” Some the the most well known compositions that this time space the “Trauer” (Mourning) Symphony No. 44, “Farewell” Symphony No. 45, the piano sonata in C minor (Hob. XVI/20, L. 33), and also the 6 string quartets the Op. 20 (the “Sun” quartets), every from c. 1771–72. It was also around this time the Haydn came to be interested in composing fugues in the Baroque style, and three of the Op. 20 quartets finish with a fugue.
Following the climax of the “Sturm und Drang”, Haydn went back to a lighter, an ext overtly to chat style. There room no quartets indigenous this period, and also the symphonies take on brand-new features: the scoring often includes trumpets and timpani. These alters are frequently related to a significant shift in Haydn’s professional duties, which relocated him away from “pure” music and also toward the production of comic operas. Numerous of the operas to be Haydn’s own occupational (see perform of operas by Joseph Haydn); these are seldom performed today. Haydn sometimes recycled his opera music in symphonic works, which assisted him continue his career together a symphonist during this hectic decade.
In 1779, crucial change in Haydn’s contract permitted him come publish his compositions without prior authorization indigenous his employer. This might have urged Haydn come rekindle his career together a composer that “pure” music. The adjust made itself felt most drastically in 1781, once Haydn published the six string quartets the Opus 33, announcing (in a letter to potential purchasers) the they were created in “a brand-new and fully special way.” Charles Rosen has suggested that this assertion on Haydn’s part was not just sales talk, however meant quite seriously; and also he points out a number of important breakthroughs in Haydn’s compositional technique that appear in this quartets, breakthroughs that note the advent of the timeless style in full flower. These encompass a fluid kind of phrasing, in which every motif increase from the vault one without interruption, the practice of letting accompanying material evolve right into melodic material, and a kind of “Classical counterpoint” in which every instrumental component maintains its very own integrity. These traits proceed in the many quartets that Haydn created after Opus 33.
In the 1790s, created by his England journeys, Haydn occurred what Rosen calls his “popular style”, a an approach of ingredient that, with unprecedented success, developed music having great popular appeal however retaining a learned and rigorous music structure. An important facet of the well-known style was the constant use of people or folk-like material. Haydn took care to deploy this product in appropriate locations, such as the end of sonata expositions or the opening themes the finales. In together locations, the individual material serves together an element of stability, helping to anchor the bigger structure. Haydn’s popular style have the right to be heard in virtually all of his later on work, consisting of the twelve London symphonies, the late quartets and also piano trios, and the 2 late oratorios.
The return to Vienna in 1795 significant the last transforming point in Haydn’s career. Back his musical style progressed little, his intentions together a composer changed. While he had actually been a servant, and also later a liven entrepreneur, Haydn composed his works quickly and also in profusion, with constant deadlines. Together a affluent man, Haydn currently felt that he had actually the privilege of taking his time and also writing because that posterity. This is reflect in the subject matter of The development (1798) and also The periods (1801), which address such weighty topics together the definition of life and the purpose of humankind, and represent an attempt to render the sublime in music. Haydn’s new intentions likewise meant that he to be willing to spend much time on a solitary work: both oratorios took him over a year to complete. Haydn when remarked that he had functioned on The production so long because he want it come last.
The readjust in Haydn’s approach was important in the background of classic music, as various other composers to be soon complying with his lead. Notably, Beethoven embraced the exercise of acquisition his time and also aiming high.
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Identifying Haydn’s Works
Haydn’s functions are noted in a substantial catalogue all set by Anthony van Hoboken. This Hoboken catalogue offers each work-related with an identifying number, referred to as its Hoboken number (abbreviation: H. Or Hob.). The wire quartets likewise have Hoboken numbers, but are usually established instead by your opus numbers, which have actually the advantage of describe the groups of 6 quartets the Haydn published together; thus for instance the string quartet Opus 76, No. 3 is the 3rd of the 6 quartets published in 1799 together Opus 76.