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Russia Drainagehttps://rewildtv.com/countries/russia/geography/russia_geography_drainage.htmlSources: The Library of Congress nation Studies; CIA civilization FactbookBack to Russia geography Russia is a water-rich country. The earliest negotiations in the country sprang up follow me the rivers, where most of the urban populace continues come live. The Volga, Europe"s longest river, is by much Russia"s most vital commercial waterway. 4 of the country"s thirteen largest cities are situated on its banks: Nizhniy Novgorod, Samara, Kazan", and also Volgograd. The Kama River, which flows west from the southerly Urals to sign up with the Volga in the Republic the Tatarstan, is a second crucial European water system whose banks are densely populated.Russia has thousands that rivers and inland bodies of water, providing it with among the world"s biggest surface-water resources. However, many of Russia"s rivers and also streams belong to the Arctic drainage basin, i beg your pardon lies mostly in Siberia but additionally includes part of europe Russia. Altogether, 84 percent of Russia"s surface ar water is located east of the Urals in rivers flowing through sparsely populated territory and also into the Arctic and also Pacific oceans. In contrast, locations with the highest concentrations that population, and therefore the highest need for water supplies, often tend to have the warmest climates and highest prices of evaporation. Together a result, densely populated locations such as the Don and also Kuban" river containers north that the Caucasus have actually barely adequate (or in some situations inadequate) water resources.Forty that Russia"s rivers much longer than 1,000 kilometers are eastern of the Urals, including the three significant rivers that drainpipe Siberia together they flow northward to the Arctic Ocean: the Irtysh-Ob" system (totaling 5,380 kilometers), the Yenisey (4,000 kilometers), and also the Lena (3,630 kilometers). The containers of those river equipment cover around 8 million square kilometers, discharging practically 50,000 cubic meters of water per second into the Arctic Ocean. The northward flow of these rivers method that source areas thaw before the locations downstream, creating huge swamps such together the 48,000-square-kilometer Vasyugane Swamp in the facility of the West Siberian Plain. The same is true of various other river systems, consisting of the Pechora and the phibìc Dvina in Europe and also the Kolyma and the Indigirka in Siberia. About 10 percent the Russian region is classified as swampland.A number of other rivers drainpipe Siberia from eastern hill ranges right into the Pacific Ocean. The Amur River and its key tributary, the Ussuri, type a long stretch the the winding boundary between Russia and also China. The Amur mechanism drains most of southeastern Siberia. Three containers drain european Russia. The Dnepr, i beg your pardon flows largely through Belarus and also Ukraine, has its headwaters in the hills west of Moscow. The 1,860-kilometer Don originates in the main Russian Upland south of Moscow and then flows into the Sea of Azov and also the black color Sea at Rostov-na-Donu. The Volga is the third and by far the biggest of the europe systems, rising in the Valday Hills west the Moscow and also meandering southeastward for 3,510 kilometers prior to emptying right into the Caspian Sea. Altogether, the Volga mechanism drains around 1.4 million square kilometers. Attached by numerous canals, european Russia"s rivers long have actually been a crucial transportation system; the Volga mechanism still carries two-thirds that Russia"s inland water web traffic (see Transportation, ch. 6).Russia"s inland bodies of water space chiefly a legacy of substantial glaciation. In europe Russia, the largest lakes are Ladoga and also Onega northeast of St. Petersburg, Lake Peipus top top the Estonian border, and the Rybinsk Reservoir north of Moscow. Smaller artificial reservoirs, 160 to 320 kilometers long, are on the Don, the Kama, and also the Volga rivers. Many huge reservoirs additionally have been constructed on the Siberian rivers; the Bratsk Reservoir northwest that Lake Baikal is just one of the world"s largest.The most influential of Russia"s bodies of fresh water is Lake Baikal, the world"s deepest and most capacious freshwater lake. Lake Baikal alone stop 85 percent of the freshwater sources of the lakes in Russia and also 20 percent of the world"s total. It extends 632 kilometers in length and also fifty-nine kilometers across at that widest point. Its maximum depth is 1,713 meters. Numerous smaller lakes dot the north regions that the European and Siberian plains. The biggest of these are lakes Beloye, Topozero, Vyg, and Il"men" in the europe northwest and also Lake Chany in southwestern Siberia.ClimateRussia has a greatly continental climate because of its thin size and compact configuration. Many of its soil is much more than 400 kilometers indigenous the sea, and the center is 3,840 kilometers from the sea. In addition, Russia"s hill ranges, predominantly to the south and also the east, block moderating temperatures from the Indian and Pacific oceans, but European Russia and northern Siberia absence such topographic protection from the Arctic and North Atlantic oceans.Because only little parts that Russia are south of 50° phibìc latitude and an ext than fifty percent of the country is phibìc of 60° north latitude, extensive regions experience six months of eye cover over subsoil the is permanently frozen to depth as much as number of hundred meters. The typical yearly temperature that nearly every one of European Russia is below freezing, and the average for most of Siberia is freeze or below. Many of Russia has actually only two seasons, summer and winter, with very short intervals of moderation between them. Transport routes, including entire railroad lines, room redirected in winter come traverse rock-solid waterways and also lakes. Some areas constitute essential exceptions come this description, however: the moderate maritime climate that Kaliningrad Oblast on the Baltic Sea is comparable to that of the American Northwest; the Russian far East, under the influence of the Pacific Ocean, has a monsoonal climate the reverses the direction the wind in summer and also winter, sharply distinguishing temperatures; and a narrow, subtropical tape of territory gives Russia"s most well-known summer resort area on the black color Sea.In winter an intense high-pressure system reasons winds to blow from the south and the southwest in all yet the Pacific region of the Russian landmass; in summer a low-pressure system brings winds indigenous the north and also the northwest to most of the landmass. The meteorological combination reduces the wintertime temperature difference in between north and also south. Thus, mean January temperatures are -8°C in St. Petersburg, -27°C in the West Siberian Plain, and -43°C in ~ Yakutsk (in east-central Siberia, at around the exact same latitude together St. Petersburg), if the winter median on the Mongolian border, whose latitude is some 10° furthermore south, is proper warmer. Summer temperature are more affected by latitude, however; the Arctic islands median 4°C, and the southernmost regions typical 20°C. Russia"s potential because that temperature extremes is typified by the nationwide record short of -94°C, tape-recorded at Verkhoyansk in north-central Siberia and also the document high that 38°C, recorded at numerous southern stations.The long, cold winter has actually a profound impact on nearly every facet of life in the Russian Federation. The affects where and how long civilization live and work, what kinds of crops are grown, and also where they room grown (no component of the country has a year-round cultivation season). The length and severity of the winter, in addition to the spicy fluctuations in the median summer and also winter temperatures, impose special needs on numerous branches the the economy. In regions of permafrost, buildings must be created on pilings, machinery need to be do of particularly tempered steel, and also transportation systems must be engineered to execute reliably in very low and extremely high temperatures. In addition, during extended durations of darkness and also cold, over there are enhanced demands for energy, health care, and textiles.Because Russia has tiny exposure to s influences, most of the country receives low to moderate quantities of precipitation. Highest possible precipitation drops in the northwest, with amounts decreasing native northwest to southeast across European Russia. The wettest locations are the small, lush subtropical region adjacent come the Caucasus and along the Pacific coast. Along the Baltic coast, average annual precipitation is 600 millimeters, and also in Moscow it is 525 millimeters. An typical of just twenty millimeters drops along the Russian-Kazak border, and as little as fifteen millimeters may autumn along Siberia"s Arctic coastline. Average annual days of snow cover, a critical factor because that agriculture, relies on both latitude and altitude. Cover varies from forty to 200 work in european Russia, and from 120 to 250 work in Siberia.Data as of July 1996NOTE: The information regarding Russia ~ above this page is re-published indigenous The Library of Congress nation Studies and the CIA world Factbook. No cases are made regarding the accuracy the Russia Drainage information contained here.
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All proposal for correction of any errors around Russia Drainage need to be handle to the Library of Congress and also the CIA.
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