To define the relationship in between solute concentration and the physical properties the a solution. To know that the total number of nonvolatile solute particles determines the diminish in vapor pressure, boost in cook point, and decrease in freezing point of a equipment versus the pure solvent.

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Many of the physics properties of options differ considerably from those that the pure substances disputed in previously chapters, and also these distinctions have important consequences. For example, the minimal temperature range of fluid water (0°C–100°C) severely boundaries its use. Aqueous solutions have actually both a reduced freezing point and a greater boiling allude than pure water. More than likely one that the most familiar applications that this phenomenon is the enhancement of ethylene glycol (“antifreeze”) come the water in an vehicle radiator. This solute lowers the freezing suggest of the water, staying clear of the engine from cracking in really cold weather indigenous the growth of pure water top top freezing. Antifreeze also enables the cooling device to run at temperatures better than 100°C without generating enough pressure come explode.

Changes in the freezing allude and boiling point of a solution depend mostly on the number of solute particles existing rather than the kind of particles. Together properties of services are referred to as colligative nature (from the Latin colligatus, meaning “bound together” together in a quantity). As we will see, the vapor pressure and also osmotic press of solutions are additionally colligative properties.

When we determine the variety of particles in a solution, that is vital to psychic that not all solutions with the same molarity save the same concentration the solute particles. Consider, because that example, 0.01 M aqueous options of sucrose, \(NaCl\), and also \(\ceCaCl_2\). Because sucrose disappear to offer a solution of neutral molecules, the concentration that solute corpuscle in a 0.01 M sucrose systems is 0.01 M. In contrast, both \(\ceNaCl\) and also \(\ceCaCl_2\) are ionic compounds the dissociate in water to yield solvated ions. Together a result, a 0.01 M aqueous equipment of \(\ceNaCl\) has 0.01 M Na+ ions and also 0.01 M \(Cl^−\) ions, because that a complete particle concentration the 0.02 M. Similarly, the \(\ceCaCl_2\) solution has 0.01 M \(Ca^2+\) ions and also 0.02 M \(Cl^−\) ions, for a full particle concentration of 0.03 M.These values space correct for dilute solutions, whereby the dissociation the the link to kind separately solvated ions is complete. At higher concentrations (typically >1 M), particularly with salts of small, very charged ions (such as \(Mg^2+\) or \(Al^3+\)), or in options with less polar solvents, dissociation to provide separate ions is often incomplete. The amount of the concentration of the liquified solute particles dictates the physical properties the a solution. In the adhering to discussion, we must as such keep the rewildtv.comical nature that the solute firmly in mind.

Boiling suggest Elevation

Recall that the normal boiling point of a problem is the temperature at which the vapor pressure amounts to 1 atm. If a nonvolatile solute lowers the vapor pressure of a solvent, it have to also affect the boil point. Since the vapor press of the equipment at a offered temperature is less than the vapor press of the pure solvent, achieving a vapor push of 1 atm for the solution needs a greater temperature than the common boiling point of the solvent. Hence the boiling suggest of a equipment is always greater than that the the pure solvent. We have the right to see why this must be true by compare the phase diagram for an aqueous systems with the phase diagram for pure water (Figure \(\PageIndex1\)). The vapor pressure of the systems is much less than that of pure water at every temperatures. Consequently, the liquid–vapor curve because that the solution crosses the horizontal line matching to p = 1 atm in ~ a greater temperature than does the curve because that pure water.

Figure \(\PageIndex1\): step Diagrams that Pure Water and an Aqueous equipment of a Nonvolatile Solute. The vaporization curve for the solution lies listed below the curve because that pure water at every temperatures, which outcomes in boost in the boiling suggest and a to decrease in the freezing suggest of the solution.

The boiling point of a systems with a nonvolatile solute is constantly greater 보다 the boiling suggest of the pure solvent.

The magnitude of the increase in the boiling suggest is pertained to the size of the decrease in the vapor pressure. As we have actually just discussed, the diminish in the vapor pressure is proportional to the concentration the the solute in the solution. For this reason the size of the rise in the boiling suggest must additionally be proportional to the concentration of the solute (Figure \(\PageIndex2\)). Us can define the boiling point elevation (\(ΔT_b\)) together the difference in between the boiling points of the solution and the pure solvent:

\<ΔT_b=T_b−T^0_b \labeleq1\>

where \(T_b\) is the boiling suggest of the solution and \(T^0_b\) is the boiling allude of the pure solvent. We can express the relationship between \(ΔT_b\) and also concentration as follows

\<ΔT_b = mK_b \labeleq2\>

where m is the concentration that the solute to express in molality, and \(K_b\) is the molal boiling suggest elevation consistent of the solvent, which has actually units the °C/m. Table \(\PageIndex1\) lists characteristic Kb worths for several typically used solvents.


Video \(\PageIndex1\): Freezing suggest depression is exploited to remove ice indigenous the control surfaces of aircraft.

Exercise \(\PageIndex5\)

Arrange these aqueous options in stimulate of enhancing freezing points: 0.2 m \(NaCl\), 0.3 m acetic acid, 0.1 m \(\ceCaCl_2\), and 0.2 m sucrose.


0.2 m \(\ceNaCl\) (lowest freezing point)

Determining Molar Mass indigenous Freezing suggest Depression

A equipment of 4.00 g the a nonelectrolyte dissolved in 55.0 g that benzene is found to freeze at 2.32 °C. What is the molar massive of this compound?


We have the right to solve this trouble using the following steps.

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Determine the change in freezing suggest from the it was observed freezing point and the freezing suggest of pure benzene (Table \(\PageIndex1\)).

\(\mathrmMoles\: of\: solute=\dfrac0.62\:mol\: solute1.00\cancelkg\: solvent×0.0550\cancelkg\: solvent=0.035\:mol\)

Determination the a Molar Mass indigenous Osmotic Pressure

A 0.500 l sample of an aqueous equipment containing 10.0 g the hemoglobin has actually an osmotic pressure of 5.9 torr in ~ 22 °C. What is the molar fixed of hemoglobin?


Here is one collection of steps that have the right to be supplied to resolve the problem:


Convert the osmotic pressure to atmospheres, then recognize the molar concentration from the osmotic pressure.

\(\mathrmmolar\: mass=\dfrac10.0\:g1.6×10^−4\:mol=6.2×10^4\:g/mol\)