Black Codes regulations that to be passed throughout the south in solution tothe Civil rights Act of 1866,restricting blacks’ liberty of speech, freedom of assembly, andlegal rights, and outlawing unemployment, loitering, vagrancy, andinterracial marriages. The codes were one of countless techniques thatsouthern whites used to store blacks effectively enslaved for decadesafter the abolition that slavery. Part black codes appeared as earlyas 1865.

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A nickname because that northerners who moved to the south afterthe polite War, called for their tendency to lug their possessionswith lock in big carpetbags. Though some carpetbaggers migratedto strike the rich, most did so to encourage modernization, education,and civil legal rights for previous slaves in the South. Some carpetbaggershad prominent roles in the brand-new Republican state legislatures,much come the dismay that white southerners.

Civil legal rights Actof 1866

A bill that guarantee blacks the best to sue,serve ~ above juries, testify together witnesses againstwhites, and also enter into legal contracts. The action didnot provide blacks the appropriate to vote, because most Radical Republicans in 1866 remainedunconvinced that black suffrage to be a necessity. When more Radicalswere chosen to Congress the autumn, however, they go considermaking black suffrage a need for a state’s readmission intothe Union. The act eventually led come the Fourteenth Amendment tothe Constitution.

Civil rights Actof 1875

A bill the forbade racial discrimination in all publicplaces. The act was the Radical Republicans’ critical legislativeeffort to protect the polite liberties of previous slaves. Democratsin the home opposed the bill from the outset and consequently madesure it remained greatly ineffectual.

Civil RightsCases that 1883

A collection of can be fried Court situations that countered RadicalRepublican regulation passed during Reconstruction and severelyrestricted blacks’ polite liberties. The Court ruled that the CivilRights action of 1875wasunconstitutional, citing the reality that the Fourteenth Amendmentprohibited racial discrimination by the U.S. Government yet notby individuals. The decision was used to justification racist policiesin both the South and the North.

Compromise that 1877

A political covenant that make Rutherford B. Hayes chairman (ratherthan Samuel J. Tilden) in exchange because that a complete withdrawal offederal troops from the South, effectively ending Reconstruction. Whenneither Hayes no one Tilden won sufficient electoral votes to end up being president,the election dropped into dispute, and Congress pass the ElectoralCount Act to recount famous votes in three contested states.The unique counting committee determined by simply one vote thatHayes had received an ext votes in the 3 states and also was thereforethe next president the the united States. Democracy accused the Republican-majoritycommittee the bias, for this reason the compromise of 1877 wasstruck to settle the political crisis.

Crédit Mobilier

A fake construction firm formed in the 1860sby corruption Union Pacific railroad officials that hired themselvesas building contractors at inflated prices to gain large profits. The railroadexecutives likewise bribed dozens the congressmen and also members that UlyssesS. Grant’s cabinet, including Vice president SchuylerColfax. Ultimately exposed in 1872,the work forced countless politicians come resign and also became the worstscandal that occurred during Grant’s presidency.

Depression that 1873

An economic depression—caused by bad loans and also overspeculation inrailroads and also manufacturing—that turned the North’s fist awayfrom Reconstruction. Bad whites and also blacks were hit hardest, andunemployment soared as high as 15 percent.The depression assisted southern democracy in their search to regainpolitical importance in the South and diminished the reelectionprospects because that Republican candidates, who supported hard-money policiesand small immediate financial relief. Indeed, Democrats brushed up thecongressional elections of 1874 andregained the bulk in the residence of Representatives because that the firsttime since 1856,effectively finishing Radical Reconstruction.

Fifteenth revised

A constitution amendment, validated in 1870,that offered all American males the ideal to vote, regardless of raceor wealth. The modification enfranchised blacks and poor landless whiteswho had actually never been able come vote. Radical Republicans requiredsouthern says to ratify the revised in bespeak to be readmittedinto the Union. The amendment’s ratification angered plenty of suffragettes whowere fighting for a woman’s right to vote.

First ReconstructionAct

A bill, passed by Radical Republicans inCongress in 1867,that treated Southern states as divided territories. Periodically calledthe army Reconstruction plot or the restoration Act, the first ReconstructionAct split the south into five districts, each governed by martiallaw. It to be the an initial of a collection of harsher bills the the Radicalspassed that year.

Fourteenth modification

A constitution amendment, drafted by Radical Republicans in 1866 andratified in 1868,that ensured that the liberties guarantee to blacks in the CivilRights act of 1866 couldnot be taken away. Favor the Civil civil liberties Act, the Fourteenth Amendmentgranted citizenship to all Americans nevertheless of race (exceptNative Americans, that did not gain full citizenship until the twentiethcentury). The amendment consequently reversed the supreme Court’s DredScott v. Sanforddecision that 1857.

Freedmen’s Bureau

A government firm established by congress in 1865 todistribute food, supplies, and also confiscated floor to previous slaves.Although the bureau’s worth confirmed questionable because of corruptionwithin the organization and also external push from southern whites (includingPresident Andrew Johnson), that successfully created schoolsfor blacks transparent the South.

Ku Klux Klan (KKK)

A mystery society created in Tennessee in 1866 toterrorize blacks. Racist whites formed the KKK together aviolent reaction come Congress’s passage of the Civil RightsAct the 1866.Within a couple of years, the Klan had plenty of branches in every southernstate. Klansmen donned white sheets and also threatened, beat, and evenkilled “upstart” blacks. Congress ultimately passed the Ku KluxKlan Act in 1871 tocurb Klan activity and gain back order in the South.

Ku Klux Klan Actof 1871

A congressional bill passed in an answer to prevalent KuKlux Klan violence transparent the South. The Klan had beenintimidating, beating, and also murdering blacks in every southern statesince 1866, andmany blacks, though freshly enfranchised, avoided the polls out offear for your lives. Although violence spiraled the end of controlby the late 1860sand at an early stage 1870sbecause state legislatures rotate a remote eye, the Ku Klux KlanAct revitalized order in the South gradually for the vote of 1872.

Liberal Republicans

A politics party the was developed prior to the electionsof 1872 by Republicanswho disagreed through moderate and Radical Republican ideologies.The Liberal Republicans campaigned ~ above a communication of governmentreform, lessened government spending, and also anti-corruption measures.They likewise wanted to end military reconstruction in the southern andbring about a swift repair of the Union.

Military ReconstructionAct

See First reconstruction Act.


President Andrew Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction,which lasted from 1865–1867.Johnson, a Democrat indigenous Tennessee, permitted southern says to reenterthe Union, however only after ~ 10 percentof the voting populace took loyalty oaths to the unified States.Johnson’s Presidential Reconstruction was comparable toLincoln’s Ten-Percent Plan, despite Johnson pardonedthousands the high-ranking Confederate officials. Johnson to be alsoa critic of the Freedmen’s Bureau and attempted todo away through the program. Presidential Reconstruction finished when RadicalRepublicans took control of conference in 1867 in thewake of Johnson’s “Swing approximately the Circle” speeches.

Proclamationof Amnesty and also Reconstruction

Abraham Lincoln’s 1863 Reconstructionproposal to an increase support for the battle in the phibìc andpersuade the southern to surrender. The proclamation outlined Lincoln’s Ten-PercentPlan, which declared that secessioniststates might be readmitted right into the Union after 10 percentof voter swore their allegiance to the U.S. Government.

Radical Reconstruction

The duration from 1867–1877 as soon as RadicalRepublicans managed the home of Representatives and theSenate, advocating for civil liberties and enfranchisement for formerslaves. The party, recognized for that harsh policies toward the secessionistSouth, passed gradual legislation choose the Civil RightsAct that 1866,the First and second Reconstruction Acts,the Ku Klux Klan Act the 1871,the Civil rights Act that 1875,and the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and FifteenthAmendments.

Radical Republicans

A Reconstruction-era political party recognized for its progressivelegislation and also harsh policies toward the South. The Radical Republicanspassed the Civil legal rights Act the 1866,the First repair Act, the Second ReconstructionAct, the Ku Klux Klan Act the 1871,the Civil legal rights Act that 1875,and the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments.Radical republicans in the House additionally impeached president AndrewJohnson in 1868 butwere unable to secure enough votes because that a conviction in the Senate.

Reconstruction Act

See First reconstruction Act.

Resumption Act

An act that was passed in 1875 toreduce the quantity of money circulating in the economic climate duringthe Depression that 1873.Although the Resumption plot proved beneficial in the long run, itsshort-term impacts on countless Americans were detrimental. Democratsused these tough times to gain votes: Samuel J. Tilden endedup receiving more popular votes than Rutherford B. Hayes inthe debated election the 1876.


White Unionist republic in the southern who participatedin initiatives to modernize and transform the region after the CivilWar. Though many scalawags had actually influential duties inthe brand-new state governments, southerly whites understood them traitors.

Second ReconstructionAct

An action passed by Radical republic in 1867 thatput commonwealth troops in fee of voter registration in the South.


An agricultural production mechanism in the south throughwhich affluent landowners leased separation, personal, instance plots of soil on plantations towhite and also black sharecroppers in exchange for a percentageof the yearly productivity of crops. Blacks wanted this system to wagelabor because it gave them a feeling of independence and responsibility. Ironically,though, sharecroppers had actually less autonomy 보다 wage laborers, becausehigh fan bound them come the land, and most former slaves workedon plots owned by their former masters. By 1880,most southerly blacks had come to be sharecroppers.

Slaughterhouse Cases

A collection of can be fried Court situations (involving a brand-new Orleansslaughterhouse) that successfully rendered the Fourteenth Amendment useless.The justices ruled that the amendment safeguarded citizens native rightsinfringements only on a federal level, no on a state level. This decisionallowed state legislatures to suspend blacks’ legal and also civil rightsas outlined in the Constitution.

“Swing Aroundthe Circle”

The name for a group of speeches in which president AndrewJohnson blamed Radical Republicans for the slownessof Reconstruction and race riots in the south after the passageof the Civil legal rights Act of 1866. Johnsontraveled throughout the country, speak out versus Republicans, pro-warDemocrats, blacks, and anyone rather who tested him. Consequently,his often-abrasive speeches additional tarnished the democratic Party’salready scarred reputation and persuaded countless northerners to voteRepublican in the congressional elections that 1866.

Ten-Percent Plan

Abraham Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction,under i beg your pardon secessionist states could be readmitted to the Uniononly ~ 10 percentof your voting population took a commitment oath come the Union. Lincoln agreedto pardon many Confederates but made no provision for safeguardingthe rights of former slaves. Countless Radical Republicans believedhis setup was as well lenient.

Tenure of Office plot

A bill that Congress passed during Andrew Johnson’spresidency that compelled Johnson come consult Congress prior to dismissingany congressionally appointed government official. Once Johnsonignored Congress and fired Secretary of war Edwin M. Stanton,the Radical republicans in the house impeached Johnsonon the grounds the he had actually violated the Tenure the Office Act. AlthoughJohnson technically did violate the act, the Radicalsimpeached him primarily out of revenge, angry that he had actually excludedCongress indigenous the repair process. The Senate later on acquittedJohnson, for this reason he to be not gotten rid of from office.

Thirteenth Amendment

A constitutional amendment, validated in 1865,that abolished enslavement in the unified States. Southern states wererequired come acknowledge and ratify the amendment prior to they werereadmitted to the Union.

United Statesv. Cruikshank

An 1876 SupremeCourt case that severely minimal Congress’s ability to enforcethe Ku Klux Klan plot of 1871.The Court rule that just states, not the U.S. Government, had actually theright to prosecute Klansmen under the law. There is no the hazard offederal prosecution, the Ku Klux Klan and other racistwhites had free reign come terrorize blacks throughout the South.

Wade-Davis Bill

An 1864 billthat stipulated that southerly states could reenter the Union onlyafter 50 percent oftheir voter pledged allegiance to the joined States. RadicalRepublicans passed the bill in an answer to AbrahamLincoln’s Ten-Percent Plan, which they believedwas as well lenient. Lincoln ultimately pocket-vetoed thebill, so that did no come into effect. The Wade-Davis bill was thefirst of plenty of clashes between the White House and also Congress for controlover the repair process.

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Whiskey Ring

A team of federal government officials who embezzled millionsof dollars the excise taxes revenue from the U.S. Treasury. The WhiskeyRing scandal damaged president Ulysses S. Grant’sreputation and also affected central figures in the White House—the president’sown personal secretary was indicted in the conspiracy but was acquittedafter approve testified come his innocence.