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StatPearls . Sweetheart Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-.



Bone markings room invaluable come the identification of individual bones and also bony pieces and aid in the understanding of functional and also evolutionary anatomy. They are supplied by clinicians and also surgeons, especially orthopedists, radiologists, forensic scientists, detectives, osteologists, and anatomists. Although the untrained eye may overlook bone markings together contours the the bone, they are not together simple. Bone markings play an essential role in human and animal anatomy and physiology. The functionality of bone markings arrays from enabling joints to slide past each other or lock bones in place, providing structural support to muscle and connective tissue, and providing circumferential stabilization and also protection to nerves, vessels, and also connective tissue. Knowledge the prestige of bone markings provides a brand-new appreciation and also understanding that bony anatomy and also its useful relationships with soft tissues.<1><2><3><4><5>

Common Bone Markings

Angles - sharp bony angulations that might serve together bony or soft tissue attachments but often are supplied for specific anatomical description. Examples encompass the superior, inferior, and also acromial angle of the scapula and the superior, inferior, lateral angles of the occiput.

Body - This usually refers to the largest, most influential segment that bone. Examples include the diaphysis or obelisk of lengthy bones prefer the femur and humerus.

Condyle - describes a large prominence, which often provides structural assistance to the overlying hyaline cartilage. It bear the brunt that the force exerted from the joint. Examples include the knee share (hinge joint), formed by the femoral lateral and also medial condyles, and also the tibial lateral and also medial condyles. Additionally, the occiput has an occipital condyle i m sorry articulates through atlas(C1) and also accounts for approximately 25 levels of cervical flexion and extension. 

Crest - A increased or prominent component of the sheet of a bone. Crests are regularly the sites where connective organization attaches muscle to bone. The iliac comb is uncovered on the ilium.

Diaphysis - describes the main component of the column of a lengthy bone. Long bones, consisting of the femur, humerus, and also tibia, all have a shaft.

Epicondyle - A prominence that sit atop that a condyle. The epicondyle attaches muscle and connective tissue to bone, offering support to this musculoskeletal system. Examples encompass the femoral medial and also lateral epicondyles and humeral medial and lateral epicondyles.

Epiphysis - The articulating segment that a bone, usually at the bone"s proximal and distal poles. That usually has actually a larger diameter than the column (diaphysis). The epiphysis is crucial for bone growth because it sits surrounding to the physeal line, additionally known as the expansion plate.

Facet - A smooth, flat surface that develops a share with one more flat bone or another facet, together developing a gliding joint. Examples can be viewed in the facet joints that the vertebrae, which permit for flexion and also extension of the spine. 

Fissure - An open slit in a bone the usually houses nerves and also blood vessels. Examples include superior and also inferior orbital fissure.

Foramen - A hole v which nerves and also blood vessels pass. Examples incorporate supraorbital foramen, infraorbital foramen, and mental foramen top top the cranium.

Fossa - A shallow depression in the bone surface. Below it might receive one more articulating bone or act come support brain structures. Examples include trochlear fossa, posterior, middle, and also anterior cranial fossa.

Groove - A furrow in the bone surface ar that runs follow me the length of a courage or nerve, providing an are to stop compression by surrounding muscle or exterior forces. Examples encompass a radial groove and the groove because that the transverse sinus.

Head - A rounded, prominent extension of bone the forms component of a joint. It is separated native the shaft of the bone by the neck. The head is usually covered in hyaline cartilage inside a synovial capsule. That is the key articulating surface ar with the surrounding bone, forming a "ball-and-socket" joint.

Margin - The edge of any type of flat bone. It can be used to specify a bone"s boundaries accurately. Because that example, the edge of the temporal bone articulating through the occipital bone is dubbed the occipital margin of the temporal bone. And vice versa, the edge of the occipital bone articulating with the temporal bone is dubbed the temporal margin the the occipital bone.

Meatus - A tube-like channel the extends within the bone, i beg your pardon may administer passage and protection to nerves, vessels, and even sound. Examples incorporate external acoustic meatus and internal hear meatus.

Neck - The segment in between the head and the tower of a bone. That is regularly demarcated native the head through the visibility of the physeal line in pediatric patients and also the physeal scar (physeal heat remnant) in adults. The is often separated into the operation neck and anatomical neck. The anatomical neck, which might represent the old epiphyseal plate, is regularly demarcated by its attachment to capsular ligaments. The operation neck is often much more distal and also is demarcated through the website on the neck the is most commonly fractured. For example, in the humerus, the anatomical neck operation obliquely from the greater tuberosity to just inferior come the humeral head. The surgical neck operation horizontally and also a few centimeters distal to the humeral tuberosities.

Notch - A depression in a bone i m sorry often, however not always, provides stabilization to an nearby articulating bone. The articulating bone will certainly slide into and also out the the notch, guiding the selection of movement of the joint. Examples incorporate the trochlear notch top top the ulna, radial notch that the ulna, suprasternal notch, and also the mandibular notch.

Ramus - The curved part of a bone that provides structural assistance to the rest of the bone. Examples encompass the superior/inferior pubic ramus and also ramus of the mandible.

Sinus - A cavity within any organ or tissue. Examples include paranasal sinuses and also dural venous sinuses.

Spinous process - A raised, sharp elevation of bone wherein muscles and also connective organization attach. That is different than a normal process in that a spinous process is more pronounced.

Trochanter - A big prominence ~ above the side of the bone. Some of the biggest muscle groups and also most thick connective tissues attach to the trochanter. The many notable examples are the greater and also lesser trochanters of the femur.

Tuberosity - A moderate prestige where muscles and also connective tissues attach. Its role is comparable to the of a trochanter. Examples encompass the tibial tuberosity, deltoid tuberosity, and also ischial tuberosity.

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Tubercle - A small, rounded prestige where connective organization attach. Examples include the greater and also lesser tubercle that the humerus.