Gold

element 79 of routine table is Gold v atomic number 79, atomic weight 196.96655. Gold, price Au, has actually a Face centered Cubic structure and Gold color. Yellow is a shift metal element. Trivial surname of gold is coinage metals. Understand everything about Gold Facts, physical Properties, chemistry Properties, digital configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.


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Gold is a chemical facet with prize Au (from Latin:aurum) and atomic number 79. In its pure form, that is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable and also ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a shift metal and a team 11 element.

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Gold Facts

Read vital information and facts about element Gold

surname Gold
atomic Number 79
atom Symbol Au
Atomic weight 196.96655
phase Solid
shade Gold
Classification transition metal
team in periodic Table 11
Group Name copper household
period in periodic Table 6
Block in periodic Table d-block
Electronic Configuration 4f14 5d10 6s1
Melting allude 1064.18 °C
Boiling point 2856 °C
Electronic shell Structure <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1>
CAS Number CAS7440-57-5

community
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
Lanthanides
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinide
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

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How to situate Gold on regular Table

Periodic table is arranged by atom number, variety of protons in the nucleus which is exact same as number of electrons. The atom number rises from left come right. Routine table beginning at top left ( atomic number 1) and also ends in ~ bottom ideal (atomic number 118). As such you can straight look because that atomic number 79 to discover Gold on routine table.

Another way to read periodic table and also locate an facet is by using group number (column) and duration number (row). To situate Gold on regular table look for cross section of group 11 and duration 6 in the modern-day periodic table.

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Table the Contents


History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and also Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare gold with various other elements

Gold History

The element Gold was found by Middle eastern in year 2500 BC in unknown place . Gold acquired its surname from English word (aurum in Latin)

Gold Presence: diversity in Nature and Around Us

The table listed below shows the variety of gold in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and also Human Body.

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
diversity in cosmos 6×10-8%
variety in sun 1×10-7%
diversity in Meteorites 1.7e-07
Abundance in Earth"s crust 3.1×10-7%
diversity in seas 5×10-9%
abundance in people 1e-07

Crystal structure of Gold

The solid state framework of gold is Face focused Cubic.

The decision structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit cells repeats itself in 3 dimensional an are to type the structure.

Unit cabinet Parameters

The unit cabinet is represented in regards to its lattice parameters, which room the lengths of the cabinet edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
407.82 407.82 407.82 pm

and the angles in between them Lattice angles (alpha, beta and also gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms within the unit cell are defined by the set of atom positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured native a reference lattice point.

The symmetry nature of the decision are defined by the principle of an are groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional room are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral duplicates are considered distinct.

space Group surname Fm_ 3m
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room Group Number 225
Crystal framework Face centered Cubic

Gold Atomic and also Orbital Properties

Gold atoms have 79 electrons and the electronic shell structure is <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1> with Atomic hatchet Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2.


atomic Number 79
Number of electron (with no charge) 79
Number the Protons 79
Mass Number 197
Number the Neutrons 118
Shell framework (Electrons per energy level) <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1>
Electron configuration 4f14 5d10 6s1
Valence Electrons 5d10 6s1
Oxidation State -3;-2;-1 1;2;3;5
Atomic ax Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2

Shell structure of gold - electron per energy level


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Ground State digital Configuration of gold - neutral gold atom

The floor state electronic configuration the Neutral gold atom is 4f14 5d10 6s1. The part of gold configuration that is indistinguishable to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated together . For atoms with numerous electrons, this notation deserve to become prolonged and for this reason an abbreviation notation is used.This is essential as that is the Valence electron 4f14 5d10 6s1, electron in the outermost shell that determine the chemistry properties the the element.

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Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral gold

Complete soil state digital configuration because that the gold atom, Unabbreviated digital configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s1

Atomic structure of Gold

Gold atomic radius is 174 pm, when it"s covalent radius is 144 pm.

atomic Radius

174 afternoon (1.74 Å)

Atomic Volume 10.2055207254 cm3
Covalent Radius 144 pm (1.44 Å)
valve der Waals Radius 166 pm
neutron Cross section 98.7 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum that Gold

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Gold chemical Properties: gold Ionization Energies and also electron affinity

The electron affinity of gold is 222.8 kJ/mol

Valence 5
Electronegativity 2.54
ElectronAffinity 222.8 kJ/mol

Ionization power of yellow

Refer to table below for Ionization energies that Gold

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 890.1
2 1980

Gold physics Properties

Refer to listed below table because that Gold physics Properties

thickness 19.3 g/cm3
Molar Volume 10.2055207254 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 78 GPa
Shear Modulus 27 GPa
mass Modulus 220 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.44

Hardness of yellow - tests to measure up of Hardness that Element

Mohs Hardness 2.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness 216 MPa
Brinell Hardness 2450 MPa

Gold electrical Properties

gold is Conductor the electricity. Refer to table listed below for the electrical properties of yellow

electric Conductivity 4.5×107 S/m
Resistivity 2.2×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting allude N/A

Gold Heat and also Conduction Properties

thermal Conductivity 320 W/(m K)
Thermal expansion 0.0000142 K-1

Gold Magnetic Properties

Magnetic type Diamagnetic
Curie suggest N/A
fixed Magnetic Susceptibility -1.78×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -3.51×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -3.44e-05

Optical properties of Gold

Refractive table of contents N/A

Acoustic nature of Gold

speed of Sound 1740 m/s

Gold heat Properties - Enthalpies and also thermodynamics

Refer to table listed below for thermal properties the Gold

Melting suggest 1337.33 K (1064.18 °C)
Boiling suggest 3129 K (2856 °C)
vital Temperature N/A
Superconducting allude N/A

Enthalpies the Gold

warm of fusion 12.5 kJ/mol
warmth of Vaporization 330 kJ/mol
warm of combustion N/A

Gold isotopes - nuclear Properties of gold

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally developing Gold has 1 stable isotope - 197Au.


Isotope Isotope massive % abundance T fifty percent Decay mode
169Au
170Au
171Au
172Au
173Au
174Au
175Au
176Au
177Au
178Au
179Au
180Au
181Au
182Au
183Au
184Au
185Au
186Au
187Au
188Au
189Au
190Au
191Au
192Au
193Au
194Au
195Au
196Au
197Au 100% secure N/A
198Au
199Au
200Au
201Au
202Au
203Au
204Au
205Au

Regulatory and also Health - Health and Safety Parameters and also Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-57-5
RTECS Number RTECSMD5070000
period Hazard class N/A
period Numbers N/A
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA risks N/A
NFPA health and wellness Rating 2
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition allude N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

list of distinct identifiers to find the facet in various chemical it is registered databases

Database id number
CAS Number - chemistry Abstracts organization (CAS) CAS7440-57-5
CID Number CID23985
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSMD5070000

Compare Gold v all Group 11 elements

yellow vs Copper yellow vs silver- Gold vs Roentgenium

Compare Gold v all transition metal elements

gold vs Scandium gold vs Titanium yellow vs Vanadium yellow vs Chromium gold vs Manganese yellow vs Iron yellow vs Cobalt gold vs Nickel yellow vs Copper gold vs Zinc gold vs Yttrium gold vs Zirconium gold vs Niobium yellow vs Molybdenum yellow vs Technetium yellow vs Ruthenium gold vs Rhodium yellow vs Palladium gold vs silver- Gold vs Cadmium gold vs Hafnium yellow vs Tantalum gold vs Tungsten yellow vs Rhenium gold vs Osmium gold vs Iridium yellow vs Platinum gold vs Mercury yellow vs Rutherfordium yellow vs Dubnium gold vs Seaborgium yellow vs Bohrium yellow vs Hassium yellow vs Meitnerium gold vs Darmstadtium gold vs Roentgenium yellow vs Copernicium