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118 Names and Symbols of the routine Table Quiz
The routine table is comprised of 118 elements. Exactly how well do you recognize their symbols? In this quiz you will do it be displayed all 118 chemical symbols, and also you’ll require to choose the surname of the chemical element that every one represents.
Element Propertiesatomic numberatomic weightmelting pointboiling pointdensity oxidation stateselectron configuration
1,495 °C (2,723 °F)
2,870 °C (5,198 °F)
8.9 gram/cm3 at 20 °C (68 °F)
+2, +3

Occurrence, properties, and uses

Cobalt, though commonly dispersed, renders up only 0.001 percent of earth’s crust. It is found in tiny quantities in terrestrial and meteoritic aboriginal nickel-iron, in the Sun and stellar atmospheres, and also in combination with other facets in natural waters, in ferromanganese crusts deep in the oceans, in soils, in plants and also animals, and in mineral such as cobaltite, linnaeite, skutterudite, smaltite, heterogenite, and erythrite. In animals, cobalt is a trace aspect essential in the nutrition of ruminants (cattle, sheep) and in the tires of person red blood cells in the form of vitamin B12, the just vitamin known to contain together a heavy element.


erythrite; skutterudite
Erythrite native Morocco (top) ~ above skutterudite (bottom) with cobalt ore.
Courtesy of the ar Museum of natural History, Chicago, photograph, john H. Gerard/Encyclopædia rewildtv.com, Inc.

With couple of exceptions, cobalt ore is not typically mined for the cobalt content. Rather, it is often recovered together a by-product from the mining the ores of iron, nickel, copper, silver, manganese, zinc, and also arsenic, i beg your pardon contain traces the cobalt. Complex processing is required to concentrate and also extract cobalt from this ores. By the second decade that the 21st century, the autonomous Republic the the Congo (DRC), China, Canada, and Russia to be the world’s top producers that mined cobalt. The biggest producer of polished cobalt, however, was China, which imported huge additional amounts of cobalt mineral sources from the DRC. (For added information ~ above the mining, refining, and recovery that cobalt, see cobalt processing.)

Polished cobalt is silver-white with a pass out bluish tinge. 2 allotropes room known: the hexagonal close-packed structure, stable listed below 417 °C (783 °F), and the face-centred cubic, stable at high temperatures. The is ferromagnetic up to 1,121 °C (2,050 °F, the highest known Curie suggest of any type of metal or alloy) and also may find application wherein magnetic nature are necessary at elevated temperatures.

Cobalt is just one of the three steels that space ferromagnetic at room temperature. The dissolves progressively in dilute mineral acids, go not combine directly v either hydrogen or nitrogen, but will combine, ~ above heating, with carbon, phosphorus, or sulfur. Cobalt is also attacked through oxygen and by water vapour in ~ elevated temperatures, with the result that cobaltous oxide, CoO (with the steel in the +2 state), is produced.

Natural cobalt is all stable isotope cobalt-59, from which the longest-lived fabricated radioactive isotope cobalt-60 (5.3-year half-life) is produced by spirit irradiation in a atom reactor. Gamma radiation native cobalt-60 has actually been offered in location of X-rays or alpha rays from radium in the investigate of industrial materials to reveal internal structure, flaws, or international objects. That has additionally been supplied in cancer therapy, in sterilization studies, and also in biology and also industry together a radioactive tracer.

Most of the cobalt developed is provided for special alloys. A relatively huge percentage that the world’s manufacturing goes into magnetic alloys such as the Alnicos for long-term magnets. Sizable amounts are made use of for alloys the retain your properties in ~ high temperatures and superalloys that are used near their melt points (where steels would become too soft). Cobalt is likewise employed because that hard-facing alloys, tool steels, low-expansion alloys (for glass-to-metal seals), and constant-modulus (elastic) alloys (for precision hairsprings). Cobalt is the many satisfactory matrix for cemented carbides.

Finely split cobalt ignites spontaneously. Bigger pieces are relatively inert in air, but over 300 °C (570 °F) comprehensive oxidation occurs.


In its compound cobalt nearly always exhibits a +2 or +3 oxidation state, although states of +4, +1, 0, and −1 room known. The compounds in which cobalt exhibits the +2 oxidation state (Co2+, the ion being secure in water) are referred to as cobaltous, if those in i beg your pardon cobalt exhibits the +3 oxidation state (Co3+) are called cobaltic.

Both Co2+ and Co3+ form numerous coordination compounds, or complexes. Co3+ forms much more known complex ions than any other metal except platinum. The coordination variety of the complexes is normally six.

Cobalt creates two well-defined binary compounds through oxygen: cobaltous oxide, CoO, and tricobalt textroxide, or cobalto-cobaltic oxide, Co3O4. The latter consists of cobalt in both +2 and also +3 oxidation states and also constitutes as much as 40 percent that the advertisement cobalt oxide offered in the manufacture of ceramics, glass, and enamel and in the preparation of catalysts and also cobalt steel powder.

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One that the more important salts of cobalt is the sulfate CoSO4, i beg your pardon is to work in electroplating, in preparing dry agents, and for pasture top-dressing in agriculture. Other cobaltous salts have significant applications in the manufacturing of catalysts, driers, cobalt metal powders, and other salts. Cobaltous chloride (CoCl2∙6H2O in advertising form), a pink hard that changes to blue together it dehydrates, is used in catalyst preparation and also as one indicator that humidity. Cobaltous phosphate, Co3(PO4)2∙8H2O, is used in paint porcelain and colouring glass.