The change Becomes Radical

The change had 3 phases. The for free phase discovered France under a constitutional monarchy throughout the national Assembly (1789–1791) and also Legislative Assembly (1791–1792). After the destruction of absolutism and feudalism, legislation in this duration guaranteed individual liberty, advocated secularism, and favored educated property owners. The previously mentioned Declaration of rights proclaimed flexibility of thought, worship, and also assembly and freedom native arbitrary arrest; it enshrined the values of careers open to talent and also equality before the law, and also it hailed building as a sacred ideal (similarly, the nationwide Assembly minimal the poll to males with property). Other laws, enacted in conformity with reason, contributed to the “new regime.” They available full civil liberties to Protestants and also Jews, in order to divorcing religion from citizenship; they denomination guilds and internal tolls and also opened trades to every people, thereby developing the problems for financial individualism; castle rationalized France’s administration, developing departments in the ar of provinces and giving castle uniform and reformed institutions. Significantly, the nationwide Assembly restructured the French Catholic Church, expropriating church lands, abolishing most monastic orders, and redrawing diocesan boundaries.

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The revolution did no end regardless of the promulgation that the constitution of 1791. King luigi XVI had actually never reconciled self to the transformation and together a devout Catholic was distressed after ~ the pope condemned the restructuring of the church (known as the polite Constitution that the Clergy). Ultimately, the king attempted to flee France ~ above June 20, 1791, however was stopped at Varennes. Radical constituted an additional problem because that the assembly, because that Parisian artisans and shopkeepers (called sans-culottes ) resented your formal exemption from national politics in the Constitution and demanded legislation to deal with France’s financial crisis and the revolution’s enemies, an especially nobles and also priests. ~ Varennes, radicals dubbed increasingly because that a republic. In addition, revolutionaries’ fears of international nations and counterrevolutionary émigrés led to a explanation of war against Austria in April 1792. France’s crusade versus despotism began badly, and also Louis XVI’s veto the wartime measures showed up treasonous. On respectable 10, 1792, a revolutionary crowd assaulted the royal palace. This “second revolution” toppled the monarchy and resulted in the convocation of a democratically chosen National Convention, which claimed France a republic on September 22, 1792, and subsequently tried and also executed the king.

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This 19th century advertising for chocolate shows how strong the memory of the French revolution remained in France a century ~ the events. This picture represents the not successful attempt of King luigi XVI in 1791 to escape France and also join the military pressures of other countries attempting to damage the Revolution. He and his family were well-known at the border and forced to return to Paris. Native this minute they were seen as dangerous enemies of the nation.

The revolution’s second, radical phase lasted from respectable 10, 1792, till the autumn of Maximilien Robespierre (1758–1794) top top July 27, 1794. The Convention’s new declaration the rights and also constitution in 1793 captured the regime’s egalitarian social and political ideals and distinguished that from the liberal phase by proclaiming global manhood suffrage , the ideal to education and also subsistence, and also the “common good” together the score of society. The constitution, however, to be never enforced amid the emergency case resulting native civil battle in the west (the Vendée), extensive revolts against the Convention, economic chaos, and also foreign war against Austrian, Prussia, Britain, Holland, and Spain. Faced with unavoidable collapse in the summer that 1793, by spring 1794 the government had “saved” the change and organized military victories on all fronts.

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The stunning change of events stemmed native the revolutionaries’ three-pronged strategy under the management of Robespierre and also the Committee of public Safety. First, they developed a plan economy, consisting of price controls and nationalized workshops, for a complete war effort. The planned economic situation largely noted bread for the poor and also matériel because that the army. Second, the government required unity and restricted political opposition v a regime of Terror. Under the Terror, the Revolutionary Tribunal do the efforts “enemies the the nation,” some 40,000 of whom to be executed—often by guillotine—or died in jail; an additional 300,000 human being languished in prison under a faint “law of suspects.” The unleashing of terror to silence political adversaries imposed order in ~ the expense of freedom. It raised complicated moral issues about method and ends and has brought about vigorous historic debate: to be the Terror one understandable response to the emergency, one that saved the transformation from a return the the Old Regime, or was it a harbinger the totalitarianism that sacrificed individual life and liberty come an all-powerful state and also the summary goal of regenerating humankind? Finally, the revolutionary government harnessed the explosive pressure of nationalism. Merged by usual institutions and also a re-superstructure of sovereign power, desirous the protecting the gains of revolution, and guided through a national mission to spread out the gospel the freedom, patriotic French treated the revolutionary wars as a secular crusade. The mix of a to plan economy, the power of Terror, and also revolutionary nationalism permitted for a full-scale mobilization of resources that drive foreign militaries from French floor at the battle of Fleurus top top June 26, 1794.

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As part of its efforts to end the inequality that had traditionally marked French society, the transformation confiscated many of the building that the Catholic church had collected over the centuries and demanded that clergymans sign one oath recognizing the legitimacy the the brand-new political order. Countless refused and worked through the internal external opponents of the change to return France to the "ancient regime" (the system before the Revolution). The radical leaders of the transformation imprisoned or executed many of them together traitors come the nation. The storage of this problem continued to form French culture through the 2nd World War, and also many Catholic conservatives continued to refuse come accept any government accept any government except a timeless monarchy.