Key principles

The attractions between the protons and electrons of atom can reason an electron come move fully from one atom to the other. As soon as an atom loses or benefit an electron, that is dubbed an ion. The atom that loses one electron i do not care a hopeful ion.The atom that gains an electron becomes a an adverse ion.A hopeful and an unfavorable ion tempt each various other and form an ionic bond.

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Students will certainly look in ~ animations and also make illustrations of the ionic bonding of sodium chloride (NaCl). College student will watch that both ionic and also covalent bonding start with the attractions that protons and electrons in between different atoms. But in ionic bonding, electrons room transferred indigenous one atom come the other and also not common like in covalent bonding. Student will use Styrofoam balls to make models the the ionic bonding in salt chloride (salt).


Students will have the ability to explain the process of the development of ions and ionic bonds.


Download the student task sheet, and also distribute one every student as soon as specified in the activity. The task sheet will certainly serve as the “Evaluate” component of each 5-E class plan.


Be sure you and the student wear effectively fitting goggles.

Materials because that Each Group

Black paperSaltCup through salt from evaporated saltwaterMagnifier irreversible marker

Materials for Each Student

2 tiny Styrofoam balls2 large Styrofoam balls2 toothpicks

Note: In an ionically external inspection substance such together NaCl, the smallest ratio of optimistic and negative ions bonded together is referred to as a “formula unit” fairly than a “molecule.” Technically speaking, the term “molecule” refers to two or more atoms that room bonded with each other covalently, no ionically. Because that simplicity, you could want to usage the ax “molecule” for both covalently and also ionically bonded substances.


Show an animation to present the procedure of ionic bonding.

Project the animation Ionic bond in sodium chloride.

Remind students that in covalent bonding, atom share electrons. But there is another form of bonding wherein atoms don’t share, but instead either take or give up electrons. This is referred to as ionic bonding. This animation shows a very simplified design of just how sodium and also chloride ions are formed.

Note: In order to simplify the version of ionic bonding, a solitary atom of sodium and chlorine space shown. In reality, the chlorine atom would certainly be bonded to an additional chlorine atom as part of the gas Cl2. The sodium atom would be one of billions the trillions of sodium atoms bonded together as a solid. The combination of these substances is a facility reaction in between the atoms of the 2 substances. The animation shows single separated atoms to illustrate the idea of exactly how ions and ionic bonds room formed.

Explain what happens throughout the animation.

Tell students the the attraction of the proton in the sodium and chlorine because that the various other atom’s electrons bring the atom closer together. Chlorine has actually a more powerful attraction because that electrons 보다 sodium (shown by the more thickness arrow). In ~ some point during this process, an electron native the sodium is moved to the chlorine. The sodium loses an electron and the chlorine benefit an electron.

Tell student that once an atom profit or loser an electron, it becomes an ion.

Sodium loses an electron, leave it through 11 protons, yet only 10 electrons. Since it has actually 1 more proton than electrons, sodium has actually a charge of +1, making that a positive ion.Chlorine gains an electron, leaving it with 17 protons and 18 electrons. Because it has 1 an ext electron 보다 protons, chlorine has a charge of −1, making the a negative ion. When ions form, atoms get or shed electrons until their outer power level is full.For example, once sodium loses its one external electron indigenous the third energy level, the 2nd level becomes the new outer power level and is full. Due to the fact that these electrons room closer come the nucleus, they are much more tightly held and will no leave. Once chlorine benefit an electron, its third energy level i do not care full. An additional electron cannot join, since it would need to come in at the fourth power level. This far from the nucleus, the electron would certainly not feel enough attraction from the proton to be stable. Climate the hopeful sodium ion and an unfavorable chloride ion tempt each various other and form an ionic bond. The ion are an ext stable once they are bonded than they were as individual atoms.

Have students explain the process of ionic bonding in salt chloride ~ above their task sheet.

Give each college student an activity sheet.

Have students create a short caption under each snapshot to define the process of covalent bonding and answer the first three questions. The rest of the activity sheet will certainly either be completed as a class, in groups, or individually depending on your instructions.

Project the photo Ionic shortcut in salt chloride.

Review with students the procedure of ionic bonding spanned in the animation.

Help students compose a brief caption alongside each picture to define the process of ionic bonding in sodium and chloride ions.

Sodium and chlorine atoms are close to each other.The protons of the two atoms attract the electrons of the other atom. The thicker arrow shows that chlorine has actually a more powerful attraction because that electrons 보다 sodium has.During the interactions in between the atoms, the electron in sodium"s outer energy level is moved to the outer power level that the chlorine atom.Since sodium shed an electron, it has 11 protons, yet only 10 electrons. This provides sodium a positive ion through a charge of +1. Since chlorine got an electron it has actually 17 protons and also 18 electrons. This provides chloride a an adverse ion with a charge of −1.The optimistic sodium ion and an unfavorable chloride ion attract one another. They do an ionic shortcut and form the ionic link NaCl.Explore

Have students watch actual salt chloride crystals and also relate their form to the molecular model.

This two-part activity will assist students check out the relationship between the plan of ions in a model of a sodium chloride crystal and the cubic form of real sodium chloride crystals.

Teacher preparation

The day prior to the lesson, dissolve around 10 grams of salt in 50 mL the water. Usage Petri key or use scissors to cut down 5 or 6 clear plastic cups to make shallow plastic dishes. Pour enough saltwater to just cover the bottom of each dish (1 because that each group). Leaving the dishes overnight come evaporate for this reason that brand-new salt crystals will be produced.

Materials because that each group

Black paperSaltCup through salt native evaporated saltwaterMagnifier irreversible marker

Materials for each student

2 small Styrofoam balls2 large Styrofoam balls2 toothpicks

Procedure, part 1

Observe sodium chloride crystals.Place a few grains of salt top top a item of black color paper. Usage your magnifier come look closely at the salt.

Have students build a 3-dimensional model of sodium chloride.

Each student will certainly make 1 unit of sodium chloride. Students in each team will placed their sodium chloride units together. Friend can help the groups integrate their structures right into a course model that a sodium chloride crystal.

Procedure, part 2

Make NaCl units.Use the marker to placed a “−” ~ above the huge balls which stand for chloride ions.Use the mite to placed a “+” on the small balls, which represent sodium ions.Break 2 toothpicks in half. Use among the half-toothpicks to attach the centers that the little and large ions with each other to do a unit of sodium chloride (NaCl). Execute the exact same thing through the other small and big ball.

Use one more half-toothpick to attach the 2 NaCl units in a directly line as shown.

Put NaCl ions with each other to do one layer of ions.Contribute her line of ion to her group and arrange them to do a 4×4 square that ions.

Use half-toothpicks to attach the ends of every line to organize the ion together. Friend only need to location toothpicks in the balls in ~ the end of every line.

Build a course sodium chloride crystal.

Give your group’s great of ion to her teacher. Your teacher will stack these to build a model of a sodium chloride crystal.


Point the end that almost everywhere you look on the crystal, a salt ion and a chloride ion are constantly surrounded by the oppositely charged ion. These opposite charges host the ions together in a crystal.


Ask students

Based on the means sodium and chloride ions bond together, why space salt crystals shaped prefer cubes?The size and also arrangement the the ions forms a cube ~ above the molecular level. Due to the fact that the sample repeats over and also over again in the very same way, the shape continues to be the same also when the decision becomes the normal dimension that we can see.Extend

Show students how calcium and also chlorine atoms bond to form the ionic link calcium chloride.

Tell students that there is an additional common substance referred to as calcium chloride (CaCl2). It is the salt the is provided on icy sidewalks and roads. Explain that when calcium and chlorine react they develop ions, choose sodium and chlorine, but the calcium ion is various from the salt ion.

Ask students:

What ions execute you think CaCl2 is make of? One calcium ion and two chloride ions.

Project the animation Calcium chloride Ionic Bond.

Point the end that the calcium loses two electrons, becoming a +2 ion. Each of the 2 chlorine atom gains among these electrons, making them each a −1 ion. Help students realize that 1 calcium ion bonds with 2 chloride ion to form calcium chloride (CaCl2), which is neutral.

Some atoms acquire or lose more than 1 electron. Calcium loses 2 electrons when it becomes an ion. When ions come together to type an ionic bond, they constantly join in number that exactly cancel the end the hopeful and an unfavorable charge.

Project the photo Calcium chloride Ionic Bond.

Review through students the procedure of ionic bonding extended in the animation.

Have students write a quick caption in ~ each picture to describe the process of ionic bonding in sodium and also chloride ions.

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One calcium and also two chlorine are close to each other.The protons of the calcium atom tempt the electron from the chlorine atom. The protons of the 2 chlorine atoms tempt the electrons from the calcium atom more strongly as presented by the more thickness arrows.During the interactions between the atoms, the 2 electrons in calcium"s outer power level space transferred to the outer energy level of each of the chlorine atoms.Since calcium shed two electrons, it has 20 protons, yet only 18 electrons. This renders calcium a confident ion through a charge of 2+. Since each chlorine atom acquired an electron, castle each have actually 17 protons and also 18 electrons. This renders each chloride a an adverse ion with a fee of −1.Oppositely charged ions entice each other, developing an ionic bond. The bonded ions are more stable 보다 the individual atoms were.