to balance equations that define reactions in solution. To calculate the amounts of compounds developed or spend in a rewildtv.comistry reaction. To deal with quantitative troubles involving the stoichiometry of reactions in solution.

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A well balanced rewildtv.comical equation gives the identification of the reactants and also the products and also the accurate number of molecules or mole of every that are consumed or produced. Stoichiometry is a collective term because that the quantitative relationships between the masses, the number of moles, and the number of particles (atoms, molecules, and ions) of the reactants and also the assets in a balanced rewildtv.comical equation. A stoichiometric quantity is the quantity of product or reactant specified by the coefficients in a balanced rewildtv.comical equation. This section describes how to use the stoichiometry that a reaction come answer questions choose the following: exactly how much oxygen is necessary to certain complete burning of a provided amount the isooctane? (This details is an essential to the style of nonpolluting and efficient vehicle engines.) How many grams that pure gold deserve to be acquired from a ton the low-grade yellow ore? (The prize determines even if it is the ore deposit is worth mining.) If an industrial plant must produce a certain variety of tons of sulfuric acid per week, exactly how much elemental sulfur need to arrive through rail each week?

All these questions have the right to be answered using the concepts of the mole, molar and also formula masses, and also solution concentrations, along with the coefficients in the proper balanced rewildtv.comical equation.

Stoichiometry Problems

When transferring out a reaction in one of two people an industrial setting or a laboratory, that is simpler to work-related with masses of building material than v the number of molecules or moles. The general an approach for convert from the fixed of any kind of reactant or product to the fixed of any kind of other reactant or product utilizing a well balanced rewildtv.comical equation is outlined in and described in the following text.

Steps in Converting between Masses that Reactant and Product

transform the massive of one substance (substance A) come the corresponding variety of moles making use of its molar mass. Native the balanced rewildtv.comical equation, obtain the number of moles of one more substance (B) indigenous the variety of moles of substance A using the proper mole proportion (the proportion of their coefficients). Convert the number of moles of problem B come mass making use of its molar mass. The is vital to remember that some varieties are present in overabundance by virtue that the reaction conditions. For example, if a problem reacts through the oxygen in air, then oxygen is in obvious (but unstated) excess.

Converting quantities of substances come moles—and evil versa—is the key to all stoichiometry problems, whether the amounts are offered in devices of mass (grams or kilograms), weight (pounds or tons), or volume (liters or gallons).

Figure (PageIndex1): A Flowchart because that Stoichiometric Calculations entailing Pure Substances.​ ​The molar masses of the reactants and also the products are supplied as conversion components so the you have the right to calculate the massive of product native the fixed of reactant and also vice versa.

To illustrate this procedure, take into consideration the combustion of glucose. Glucose reacts with oxygen to develop carbon dioxide and water:

< C_6H_12O_6 (s) + 6 O_2 (g) ightarrow 6 CO_2 (g) + 6 H_2O (l) label3.6.1>

Just before a rewildtv.comistry exam, suppose a friend reminds you the glucose is the major fuel provided by the human brain. You as such decide come eat a liquid bar come make sure that your mind does not run the end of energy throughout the exam (even though over there is no direct evidence that usage of candy bars enhances performance on rewildtv.comistry exams). If a common 2 oz liquid bar has the identical of 45.3 g that glucose and also the glucose is totally converted come carbon dioxide throughout the exam, how plenty of grams that carbon dioxide will you produce and exhale into the exam room?

The initial action in addressing a trouble of this kind is to create the balanced rewildtv.comical equation for the reaction. Inspection shows that it is balanced as written, for this reason the strategy outlined above can be adjusted as follows:

1. Use the molar fixed of glucose (to one decimal place, 180.2 g/mol) to identify the number of moles the glucose in the liquid bar:

< moles , glucose = 45.3 , g , glucose imes 1 , mol , glucose over 180.2 , g , glucose = 0.251 , mol , glucose >

2. According to the well balanced rewildtv.comical equation, 6 mol that CO2 is produced per mole of glucose; the mole proportion of CO2 come glucose is thus 6:1. The number of moles that CO2 developed is thus

< moles , CO_2 = mol , glucose imes 6 , mol , CO_2 over 1 , mol , glucose >

< = 0.251 , mol , glucose imes 6 , mol , CO_2 over 1 , mol , glucose >

< = 1.51 , mol , CO_2 >

3. Usage the molar massive of CO2 (44.010 g/mol) to calculate the fixed of CO2 corresponding to 1.51 mol that CO2:

< mass, of, CO_2 = 1.51 , mol , CO_2 imes 44.010 , g , CO_2 over 1 , mol , CO_2 = 66.5 , g , CO_2 >

These operations deserve to be summarized as follows:

< 45.3 , g , glucose imes 1 , mol , glucose over 180.2 , g , glucose imes 6 , mol , CO_2 over 1 , mol , glucose imes 44.010 , g , CO_2 over 1 , mol , CO_2 = 66.4 , g , CO_2 >

Discrepancies in between the two values are attributed to rounding errors resulting from using stepwise calculations in procedures 1–3. (Remember the you must generally lug extra far-reaching digits through a multistep calculation to the finish to stop this!) This quantity of gaseous carbon dioxide rectal an huge volume—more than 33 L. Similar methods have the right to be supplied to calculation the lot of oxygen consumed or the lot of water produced.

The well balanced rewildtv.comical equation was used to calculation the fixed of product that is formed from a specific amount the reactant. That can also be offered to identify the masses that reactants that are crucial to type a certain amount that product or, as shown in example (PageIndex1), the mass of one reactant the is forced to consume a provided mass of one more reactant.

Example (PageIndex1): The US an are Shuttle

The combustion of hydrogen with oxygen to develop gaseous water is extremely vigorous, developing one that the sexy flames known. Since so much energy is released for a given mass the hydrogen or oxygen, this reaction was supplied to fuel the NASA (National Aeronautics and room Administration) space shuttles, which have actually recently to be retired indigenous service. NASA designers calculated the specific amount of every reactant essential for the flight to make certain that the shuttles did not lug excess fuel into orbit. Calculate how many tons of hydrogen a room shuttle necessary to bring for every 1.00 tn that oxygen (1 tn = 2000 lb).


The US room shuttle exploration during liftoff. The huge cylinder in the middle has the oxygen and hydrogen that fueled the shuttle’s main engine.

Given: reactants, products, and also mass of one reactant

Asked for: massive of other reactant


compose the well balanced rewildtv.comical equation for the reaction. Transform mass that oxygen to moles. Native the mole ratio in the balanced rewildtv.comical equation, recognize the variety of moles of hydrogen required. Then transform the mole of hydrogen to the indistinguishable mass in tons.


We use the same basic strategy for fixing stoichiometric calculations together in the preceding example. Because the quantity of oxygen is given in lots rather than grams, however, we also need to transform tons to units of fixed in grams. Another conversion is essential at the end to report the last answer in tons.

A We very first use the information given to compose a well balanced rewildtv.comical equation. Due to the fact that we understand the identification of both the reactants and also the product, we have the right to write the reaction as follows:

< H_2 (g) + O_2 (g) ightarrow H_2O (g) >

This equation is not well balanced because there space two oxygen atoms on the left side and also only one top top the right. Assigning a coefficient of 2 to both H2O and also H2 provides the well balanced rewildtv.comical equation:

< 2 H_2 (g) + O_2 (g) ightarrow 2 H_2O (g) >

Thus 2 mol of H2 react through 1 mol that O2 to develop 2 mol of H2O.

1. B To transform tons the oxygen to devices of massive in grams, we multiply by the ideal conversion factors:

< massive , the , O_2 = 1.00 , tn imes 2000 , lb over tn imes 453.6 , g over lb = 9.07 imes 10^5 , g , O_2 >

Exercise (PageIndex1): Roasting Cinnabar

Cinnabar, (or Cinnabarite) (HgS) is the usual ore the mercury. Since of its mercury content, cinnabar can be toxicity to human being beings; however, because of that is red color, it has likewise been provided since ancient times together a pigment.

Cinnabar ore. Indigenous Wikipedia

Alrewildtv.comists created elemental mercury through roasting cinnabar ore in air:

< HgS (s) + O_2 (g) ightarrow Hg (l) + SO_2 (g) >

The volatility and also toxicity the mercury make this a hazardous procedure, which likely shortened the life expectations of countless alrewildtv.comists. Provided 100 g of cinnabar, how much elemental mercury can be created from this reaction?


86.2 g

Calculating mole from Volume

Quantitative calculations including reactions in equipment are brought out v masses, however, volumes of services of known concentration are supplied to determine the number of moles that reactants. Whether dealing with volumes of remedies of reaction or masses of reactants, the coefficients in the balanced rewildtv.comical equation give the number of moles of every reactant needed and the variety of moles of every product that can be produced. An broadened version of the flowchart for stoichiometric calculations is displayed in number (PageIndex2). The well balanced rewildtv.comical equation for the reaction and either the masses of heavy reactants and also products or the quantities of options of reactants and also products deserve to be used to determine the amounts of various other species, as depicted in the following examples.

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As shown in the strategy, start by calculating the variety of moles of − existing in the solution from the volume and also concentration of the − solution:

( eginalign moles: ^-& = V_L M_mol/L \& = 400 .0: cancelL left( dfrac3 .30 imes 10^4-: mol: ^- 1: cancelL ight) = 0 .132: mol: ^- endalign )

B due to the fact that the coefficients that gold and the − ion are the same in the well balanced rewildtv.comical equation, assuming that Zn(s) is present in excess, the variety of moles that gold developed is the exact same as the variety of moles of − (i.e., 0.132 mol the Au). The problem asks because that the fixed of yellow that can be obtained, for this reason the variety of moles that gold should be converted to the corresponding mass utilizing the molar mass of gold:

( eginalign mass: of: Au &= (moles: Au)(molar: mass: Au) \&= 0 .132: cancelmol: Au left( dfrac196 .97: g: Au 1: cancelmol: Au ight) = 26 .0: g: Au endalign)

At a 2011 market price of end $1400 per troy ounce (31.10 g), this quantity of gold is precious $1170.

( 26 .0: cancelg: Au imes dfrac1: canceltroy: oz 31 .10: cancelg imes dfrac$1400 1: canceltroy: oz: Au = $1170 )